Variations

Authors, dates, titles, editions and web addresses

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Single authors

Single authors.

Write author’s name in full, beginning with first name.
Use middle name initials if given.
If no first names given, use provided initials with a full stop after each initial .

1. Richard Vaughan, Philip the Bold, London, 1962, p. 230.
2. Joel T. Rosenthal, The Purchase of Paradise, London, 1972, p. 85.
3. R.C. Smail, Crusading Warfare (1097–1193), Cambridge, 1956, p. 209.

 

Two authors

Two authors.

Use ‘and’ between authors.

1. Sir Frederick Pollock and Frederic William Maitland, The History of English Law, 2nd edn, 2 vols, Cambridge, 1898, ii, p. 617.
Three of more authors

Three or more authors.

Where there are multiple authors, cite all of the authors in full for the first time, and thereafter use the abbreviation et al., meaning ‘and others’.

 

First footnote

First footnote.

1. Ruth Weston, David Stanton, Lixia Qu and Grace Soriano, ‘Australian families in transition’, Family Matters, no. 60, Spring/Summer 2001, p. 12.

 

Second and further footnotes

Second and further footnotes.

et al. (in italics, end with full stop).
6. Weston et al., ‘Australian Families’, p. 12.

 

Author unknown

Author unknown.

If an author’s name cannot be located, use the term ‘Anon.’ (for ‘Anonymous’, use full stop for abbreviation).

1. Anon., ‘World War 1 Celebrations in Armidale’, Armidale Express, 11 November 1936, p. 4.

 

Titles

Titles.

Published works require maximum capitals and italicisation which indicates formal publication.

1. Richard Vaughan, Philip the Bold, London, 1962, p. 230.

Titles of articles in published work (e.g. journal, edited book chapter) require minimum capitals, plain text and need to be placed within single inverted commas.

2. Francis Oakley, ‘Pierre d’Ailly and papal infallibility’, Medieval Studies, vol. 26, 1964, pp. 354–55.

Unpublished work requires minimum capitals, plain text within single inverted commas.

3. Clifford James, author’s great-uncle, ‘My life before WWI’, unpublished manuscript, c. 1928-1932, p. xiii, copy in author’s possession.

 

Edition & volumes

Edition & volumes.

For second, later editions or revised editions state the edition after the title.

1. Norman Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium, 2nd edn, New York, 1970, pp. 17-18.

For multi-volumed work, place the edition number first followed by the number of volumes.

2. Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, 3 vols, Cambridge, 1951–54, i, p. 23.
3. Sir Frederick Pollock and Frederic William Maitland, The History of English Law, 2nd edn, 2 vols, Cambridge, 1898, ii, p. 617.

 

Editor or editors

Editor or editors.

Place ed. (one editor) OR eds (more than one editor) after the editor/s name in round brackets.

1. Joel T. Rosenthal, ‘When did you last see your grandfather?’, in Crown, Government and People in the Fifteenth Century, Rowena E. Archer (ed.), Stroud, 1995, pp. 229-231.

 

Publication details

Publication details.

Provide place and date of publication.. Only include name of publisher in the bibliography reference.

Place is the name of the town or city where a book was published, not country or county, though where ambiguity is possible it is desirable to include American states such as Cambridge Mass.

1. R.C. Smail, Crusading Warfare (1097–1193), Cambridge, 1956, p. 209.

 

Place and date of publication unknown

Place and date of publication unknown.

‘n.p.’ means no place of publication ‘n.d.’ means ‘no date’.
1. F. J. Brown, The Children’s Playground, n.p., 1972, p. 14.
2. Ryan Smith, History of Elephants, Cambridge, n.d., p. 26.

 

Pages

Pages.

Use p. for single page, pp. for page spans.

1. Francis Oakley, ‘Pierre d’Ailly and papal infallibility’, Medieval Studies, vol. 26, 1964, pp. 354–55.

If no pages, write unpaginated in round brackets.

2. A. M. Sellar (trans.), Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of England, London, 1907, Book 1, chap. v (unpaginated), in Christian Classics Ethereal Library, http://www.ccel.org/b/bede/history
/htm/v.vi.htm, accessed 14 November 2014.

 

Web pages

Web pages.

Do not underline the URL/doi and remove hyperlinks. If your information source has a doi, use this in preference to a URL. Avoid long strings in the URL (ezproxy) by providing only the root of the URL. Delete the ezproxy string.

Provide as much of the following as is available: 

Author > title > publication details > page number or other locator (paragraph number) > a doi (see e.g. 1) or stable URL (see e.g. 2) or the website’s homepage or search page (see e.g. 3) > date you accessed the site.
The letters doi are lower case, followed by a colon and no space.
1. Christina Twomey and Catharine Coleborne, ‘Australia: Present and past histories’, Australian Historical Studies, vol. 45, iss. 3, 2014, p. 295, doi:10.1080/1031461X.2014.950404, accessed 14 November 2014.
2. Angus R. McGillivery, ‘Reading a sealed agricultural past: Hand tools and implements of husbandry, mixed farming and a colonial yeomanry in the antipodes’, Journal of Australian Colonial History, vol. 16, 2014, p. 28, http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=449101689871002;res=IELAPA, accessed 14 November 2014.
3. Dawes and Hewitt, ‘Cargo of the ship Arab’, Colonial Times, 22 August 1828, p. 2, c. 4, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper, accessed 14 November.
Maximum capitals: Capitalise the first letter of every Major word in the title—conjunctions, articles and short prepositions are not considered major words e.g. Journal of Australian Colonial History.
Minimum capitals: Capitalise only the first word, proper nouns (e.g. names of people, cultural groups, places), and first word after a question mark (?), a colon (:) or em dash (—) e.g. ‘Reading a sealed agricultural past: Hand tools and implements of husbandry, mixed farming and a colonial yeomanry in the antipodes’.

 

Acceptable abbreviations and contractions for words used in footnote referencing:

Acceptable abbreviations and contractions for words used in footnote referencing:

abr. = abridged (as in abridged edition), anon. = anonymous, ch. = chapter, c. = column or circa (approximate date), edn = edition, ed. = editor, eds = editors, et al. = and others, fac. = facsimile (as in facsimile edition), Fig. = Figure.
iss. = issue, ibid. = as immediately above, n.d. = not dated, n.p. = no place (of publication given), no. = number, p. = page, pp. = pages, pers. comm. = personal communication, rev. = revised (as in revised edition), vol. = volume, vols = volumes.

 

True or False: ‘n.p.’ means no place of publication ‘n.d.’ means ‘no date’?
True!

 

I do not underline the URL/doi and I must remove hyperlinks and void long strings in the URL (ezproxy) by providing only the root of the URL. I must also delete the ezproxy string.
Correct!

 

True or False: et al. is written in italics and end with a full stop?
True!

 

The letters doi are lower case, followed by a colon and no space.
Correct!

 

 

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