Authors, dates, titles, editions and web addresses
Click to expand:Single authors
Write author’s name in full, beginning with first name.
Use middle name initials if given.
If no first names given, use provided initials with a full stop after each initial .
2. Joel T. Rosenthal, The Purchase of Paradise, London, 1972, p. 85.
3. R.C. Smail, Crusading Warfare (1097–1193), Cambridge, 1956, p. 209.
Use ‘and’ between authors.
Three or more authors.
Where there are multiple authors, cite all of the authors in full for the first time, and thereafter use the abbreviation et al., meaning ‘and others’.
Second and further footnotes.
If an author’s name cannot be located, use the term ‘Anon.’ (for ‘Anonymous’, use full stop for abbreviation).
Published works require maximum capitals and italicisation which indicates formal publication.
Titles of articles in published work (e.g. journal, edited book chapter) require minimum capitals, plain text and need to be placed within single inverted commas.
Unpublished work requires minimum capitals, plain text within single inverted commas.
Edition & volumes.
For second, later editions or revised editions state the edition after the title.
For multi-volumed work, place the edition number first followed by the number of volumes.
3. Sir Frederick Pollock and Frederic William Maitland, The History of English Law, 2nd edn, 2 vols, Cambridge, 1898, ii, p. 617.
Editor or editors.
Place ed. (one editor) OR eds (more than one editor) after the editor/s name in round brackets.
Provide place and date of publication.. Only include name of publisher in the bibliography reference.
Place is the name of the town or city where a book was published, not country or county, though where ambiguity is possible it is desirable to include American states such as Cambridge Mass.
Place and date of publication unknown.
2. Ryan Smith, History of Elephants, Cambridge, n.d., p. 26.
Use p. for single page, pp. for page spans.
If no pages, write unpaginated in round brackets.
/htm/v.vi.htm, accessed 14 November 2014.
Provide as much of the following as is available:
2. Angus R. McGillivery, ‘Reading a sealed agricultural past: Hand tools and implements of husbandry, mixed farming and a colonial yeomanry in the antipodes’, Journal of Australian Colonial History, vol. 16, 2014, p. 28, http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=449101689871002;res=IELAPA, accessed 14 November 2014.
3. Dawes and Hewitt, ‘Cargo of the ship Arab’, Colonial Times, 22 August 1828, p. 2, c. 4, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper, accessed 14 November.
Minimum capitals: Capitalise only the first word, proper nouns (e.g. names of people, cultural groups, places), and first word after a question mark (?), a colon (:) or em dash (—) e.g. ‘Reading a sealed agricultural past: Hand tools and implements of husbandry, mixed farming and a colonial yeomanry in the antipodes’.
Acceptable abbreviations and contractions for words used in footnote referencing:
Primary Sources Secondary Sources Bibliography