Referencing secondary sources

Examples

Secondary sources are the mass of published materials that interpret, evaluate, or analyse the evidence derived from primary sources. As such, secondary sources are at least one step removed from their subject. There are many different types of secondary sources and these examples may cite, quote or reproduce information from primary sources.

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Books

Books

  •  print
  • online (e-book/Kindle)
  • books with editions and volumes

Order: Pay particular attention to punctuation in the examples and order of presentation.

Author: Place author’s initials or forenames before the surname in the footnote. Reverse the order for the bibliography.

Online: Use URL or the DOI or if downloaded from publisher or bookseller, indicate file format, e.g. Kindle edition. (or PDF, e-book).

Pages: Use page number; if no page number use paragraph, chapter, section or write (unpaginated).

Editions and volumes:State in the correct order. The edition number goes immediately after the title e.g. (c) 2. Indicate the number of volumes, e.g. (c) 1 & 3, immediately before the place of publication. Show the volume you are using with small plain text before the page number e.g. (c) 3.

Printed books:
Footnote

1. Richard Vaughan, Philip the Bold, London, 1962, p. 230.

Repeated

6. Vaughan, Philip, p. 235.

Bibliography

Vaughan, Richard Philip the Bold, London, Longman, 1962.

 
Online (e-book/Kindle):
Footnote

1. Richard Vaughan, Philip the Bold, Kindle edn, London, 2006, http://www.netlibrary.net/html.book.philip_bold, accessed 14 November 2014, p. 45.

Repeated

8. Vaughan, Philip, p. 28.

Bibliography

Vaughan, Richard Philip the Bold, Kindle edn, London, Longman, 2006, http://www.netlibrary.net/html.book.philip_bold, accessed 14 November 2014.

 
Books with editions and volumes:
Footnote

1. Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, 3 vols, Cambridge, 1951–54, i, p. 23.

2. Norman Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium, 2nd edn, New York, 1970, p. 17.

3. Frederick Pollock and Frederic William Maitland, The History of English Law, 2nd edn, 2 vols, Cambridge, 1898, ii, p. 617.

Repeated

13. Pollock and Maitland, The history, p. 169.

Bibliography
Cohn, Norman The Pursuit of the Millennium, 2nd edn, New York, Oxford University Press, 1970.
Pollock, Frederick and Maitland, Frederic William The History of English Law, 2nd edn, 2 vols, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1898.
Runciman, Steven A History of the Crusades, 3 vols, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1951–54.
Book titles should be cited as they appear on the title page, not on the front cover or dust jacket of the text. Use maximum capitals for the book title, despite the possible use of lower case on the title page.

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Website pages

Website pages

Author: If no author can be found, write Anon. (for anonymous) in the author position.

Title: Italicise name of the web site. Use maximum capitals. If you are using a section of a website, then place the section name in single inverted commas, using minimum capitals, plain text.

Page: no page, write (unpaginated) where you would normally write the page number.

Footnote

1. A. M. Sellar (trans.), Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of England, London, 1907, book 1, chap. v, in Christian Classics Ethereal Library, http://www.ccel.org/b/bede/history/htm/v.vi.htm, accessed 14 September 2014.

Repeated

6. Sellar, Bede’s History, book 1, chap. iv.

Bibliography

Sellar, A. M. (trans.) Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of England, London, 1907, in Christian Classics Ethereal Library, http://www.ccel.org/b/bede/history/htm/v.vi.htm, accessed 14 September 2014.

Where a web page indicates a date when last revised/updated, include this date after the web page title.
Ballarat Fine Art Gallery and University of Ballarat, ‘Eureka’, updated February 1999, http://www.amol.org.au
/eureka/gallery1/index.htm, accessed 14 November 2014.

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Journal articles

Journal articles

  • Article in a journal (print)
  • Article in an online journal

Academic journals are peer-reviewed periodicals. They contain articles (research and reviews) by discipline authors and are highly valued as a source of information.

Author: Use the authors/s of the article.

Title: Punctuate the article title with minimum capitals (except for proper nouns) and enclose in single inverted commas. Punctuate the journal title with maximum capitals and italics.

Footnote details: Include volume, date and pages you are citing from.

Bibliography details: If you accessed an electronic copy, then you must include the doi/URL followed by date you accessed the site. Include the full page range of the article.

Article in a journal (print):
Footnote

1. Bruce Scates, Frank Bongiorno, Rebecca Wheatley and Laura James, ”Such a great space of water between us: Anzac Day in Britain, 1916-39′, Australian Historical Studies, vol. 45, iss. 2, 2014, p. 223.

Repeated

8. Scates et al., ‘Such a great space’, pp. 224-6.

Bibliography

Scates, Bruce; Bongiorno, Frank; Wheatley, Rebecca and James, Laura ”Such a great space of water between us: Anzac Day in Britain, 1916-39′, Australian Historical Studies, vol. 45, iss. 2, 2014, pp. 220-241.

 

Article in an online journal:
Footnote

1. Sander M. Goldberg, ‘Plautus on the Palatine’, Journal of Roman Studies, vol. 88, 1998, p. 12.

Repeated

12. Goldberg, ‘Plautus on the Palatine’, p. 9.

Bibliography

Goldberg, Sander M. ‘Plautus on the Palatine’, Journal of Roman Studies, vol. 88, 1998, pp. 1–20, http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/300802, accessed 14 November 2014.

ttp://dx.doi.org/10.2307/300802 is direct link URL with a doi embedded. It can also be written as doi:10.2307/300802 The letters doi are lower case, followed by a colon and no space. Make sure you remove the hyperlink and any underlining.

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Chapters in edited books

Chapters in edited books

An edited book is one that contains separate chapters by different authors.

Author: Use the author of the chapter.

Title: Punctuate the article title with minimum capitals (except for proper nouns) and enclose in single inverted commas. Punctuate the book title with maximum capitals and italics.

Editor/s: Must include the name/s of the editor/s with ed. or eds following in brackets.

Footnote

1. Joel T. Rosenthal, ‘When did you last see your grandfather?’, in Crown, Government and People in the Fifteenth Century, Rowena E. Archer (ed.), Stroud, 1995, pp. 229.

Repeated

5. Rosenthal, ‘When did you’, p. 240.

Bibliography

Rosenthal, Joel T. ‘When did you last see your grandfather?’, in Crown, Government and People in the Fifteenth Century, Rowena E. Archer (ed.), Stroud, Alan Sutton, 1995, pp. 223–44.

In the bibliography, include the full page range of the chapter.
Do not give chapter titles if you are using a chapter from a book which is all by the same author.

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Unpublished reports

Unpublished reports

State individual, government department or consultancy that drafted a report, and the client for whom it was prepared. Identify volume, date and pages.

Record the title of the paper in single inverted commas to indicate that it is an unpublished paper. Use minimum capitals.

Footnote

1. Freeman Collett & Partners, ‘Conservation analysis report’, vol. 1 of 4, ‘Dockyard precinct conservation plan’, unpublished report prepared for the Port Arthur Historic Site Management Authority, 1992, pp. 6-10.

Repeated

7. Freeman Collett & Partners, ‘Conservation analysis report’, p. 14.

Bibliography

Freeman Collett & Partners ‘Conservation analysis report’, vol. 1 of 4, ‘Dockyard precinct conservation plan’, unpublished report prepared for the Port Arthur Historic Site Management Authority, 1992, pp. 6-10.

Where individual authorship is given rather than a business name, use surname, first name format.

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Dissertations and theses

Dissertations & theses

Record the title of theses in single inverted commas to indicate that it is an unpublished document OR not a formal publication.

Footnote

1. D.A. Roberts, ‘Binjang or the second vale of tempe: The frontier at Wellington Valley, New South Wales, 1817-1851’, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Newcastle, 2000, p. 5.

2. Frances E. Windolf, ‘Permanent reflections?: public memorialisation in Queensland’s Sunshine Coast region’, published M.A. thesis, University of New England, https://e-publications.une.edu.au/vital/access/manager/Repository/une:13855, accessed 14 November 2014.

Repeated

8. Roberts, ‘Binjang’, p. 64.

Bibliography

Roberts, D.A. ‘Binjang or the second vale of tempe: The frontier at Wellington Valley, New South Wales, 1817-1851’, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Newcastle, 2000.

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Conferences, seminars and lectures

Conferences, seminars and lectures

Reference Information obtained from a conference, seminar or lecture may be verbal, print or in multi-media form.

Author: Record the presenter’s name

Title: Use single inverted commas (indicating that it is unpublished).

Details: Give the name of the conference or seminar series, where the conference/seminar was held, and the date/s of the conference or the date of the seminar.

Footnote

1. Michael Smith, ‘The Launceston railway workshops redevelopment’, paper presented to the National Railway Heritage Conference: Thinking rail, lessons from the past, the way of the future, Tamworth, 28-30 September 2005.

2. Erin Ihde, ‘Do not panic: Hawkwind and the cold war (an audio-visual extravaganza!)’, paper presented to the Classics and History Seminar Series, University of New England, Armidale, 14 March 2008.

Repeated

6. Smith, ‘Launceston railway workshops’.

Bibliography

Smith, Michael ‘The Launceston railway Workshops Redevelopment’, paper presented to the National Railway Heritage Conference: Thinking rail, lessons from the past, the way of the future, Tamworth, 28-30 September 2005.

Conference and seminar papers may subsequently be published. Where a paper has been published, you should endeavour to locate it and make reference to it rather than the original presentation.

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Reading on eReserve (Dixson Library)

Reading on eReserve (Dixson Library)

Treat the reference as you would any other reference of its type.
You do not have to reference to eReserve.

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Encyclopaedias

Encyclopaedias

Entry author > subject title in single inverted commas > name of encyclopaedia in italics > authorship of encyclopaedia > publication details.

Footnote

Julie Horton, ‘Abortion’, in Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice, Gary L. Anderson & Kathryn G. Herr (eds), pp. 7-10, doi.org/10.4135/9781412956215.n3, accessed 14 November 2014.

Repeated

Horton, ‘Abortion’, p. 10.

Bibliography

Anderson, Gary L. and Herr, Kathryn G. (eds) Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice, doi.org/10.4135/9781412956215.n3, accessed 14 November 2014.

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Unit topic notes & lectures

Unit topic notes & lectures

If you use a quote or an idea that you have taken from your lectures or unit topic notes, then you must acknowledge this source of information.

Footnote

1. Andrew Piper, ‘Topic 8: Cities & city life’, topic notes, HIST150: Colonial Australia, School of Humanities, University of New England, NSW, trimester 1, 2014.

2. Erin Ihde, ‘Populate or perish’, lecture, HIST151: Modern Australia, School of Humanities, University of New England, NSW, 2 September 2014.

Repeated

8. Piper, ‘Cities & city life’.

11. Ihde, ‘Populate or perish’.

Bibliography
Piper, Andrew ‘Topic 8: Cities & city life’, topic notes, HIST150: Colonial Australia, School of Humanities, University of New England, NSW, trimester 1, 2014.
Ihde, Erin ‘Populate or perish’, lecture, HIST150: Modern Australia, School of Humanities, University of New England, NSW, 2 September 2014.

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Podcasts/Vodcasts

Podcasts/Vodcasts

Podcast: A lecture or seminar that is audio only (e.g. 1).

Vodcast: A lecture or seminar that is bothaudio and video that can include powerpoint slides (e.g. 2). 

Footnote

1. Lloyd Weeks, ‘The quest for copper: how Arabia shaped the horizons of the bronze age world’, podcast, Research Seminar Series, School of Humanities, University of New England, NSW, 24 October 2014,http://www.une.edu.au/about-une/academic-schools/school-of-humanities/, accessed 14 November 2014.

2. Brett Holman, ‘Britishness and airmindedness in the 20th century’, vodcast, Research Seminar Series, School of Humanities, University of New England, NSW, 3 October 2014, http://www.une.edu.au/about-une/academic-schools/school-of-humanities/, accessed 14 November 2014.

Repeated

Weeks, ‘The quest for copper’.

Holman, ‘Britishness and airmindedness’.

Bibliography
Weeks, Lloyd ‘The quest for copper: how Arabia shaped the horizons of the bronze age world’, podcast, Research Seminar Series, School of Humanities, University of New England, NSW, 24 October 2014, http://www.une.edu.au/about-une/academic-schools/school-of-humanities/, accessed 14 November 2014.
Holman, Brett ‘Britishness and airmindedness in the 20th century’, vodcast, Research Seminar Series, School of Humanities, University of New England, NSW, 3 October 2014, http://www.une.edu.au/about-une/academic-schools/school-of-humanities/, accessed 14 November 2014.

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Quoted in/cited in/reproduced in

Quoted in/cited in/reproduced in

‘Quoted in’ means you are either quoting or paraphrasing from a quote in the source you are reading

Original author of work > title of work in italics > details of publisher, year > page > quoted in the author of the work you read > title/s > details.

‘Cited in’ means that you are using an idea cited in (but not quoted) in the source you are reading.

Original author of work > title of work in italics > publisher, year > page > cited in the author of the work you read > title/s > details.

‘Reproduced in’means that the author copied a substantial document e.g. letter, diary entry, song, poem.

Original author of work > title of work in italics > details of publisher, year > page > reproduced in the author of the work you read > title/s > details.

Bibliography: Only cite the actual source that you read.

Footnote

1. Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, London, Allen Lane, 1997, p. 27, quoted in Clare Anderson, ‘The genealogy of the modern subject: Indian convicts in Mauritius, 1814-1853′, in Representing Convicts: New Perspectives on Convict Forced Labour Migration, Ian Duffield and James Bradley (eds), London, 1997, p. 165.

2. Barry Smart, ‘On discipline and social regulations: a review of Foucault’s genealogical analysis’ in The Power To Punish, David Garland and Peter Young (eds), Aldershot, Ashgate Publishing, 1992, p. 77, cited in Clare Anderson, ‘The genealogy of the modern subject: Indian convicts in Mauritius, 1814-1853′, in Representing Convicts: New Perspectives on Convict Forced Labour Migration, Ian Duffield and James Bradley (eds), London, 1997, p. 165.

3. William H. Oliver, ‘The Moriori’, in A. H. McLintock (ed.), An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand Government, 1966, pp. 83-88, reproduced in Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/history-myths-in-new-zealand/10, accessed 30 July 2012.

Repeated

8. Foucault, Discipline and Punish, p. 27, quoted in Anderson, ‘Genealogy of the modern subject’, p. 165.

10. Smart, ‘On discipline and social regulations’, p. 77, cited in Anderson, ‘Genealogy of the modern subject’, p. 165.

12. Oliver, ‘The Moriori’, pp. 83-88, reproduced in Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand.

Bibliography
Anderson, Clare ‘The genealogy of the modern subject: Indian convicts in Mauritius, 1814-1853′, in Representing Convicts: New Perspectives on Convict Forced Labour Migration, Ian Duffield and James Bradley (eds), London, Leicester University Press, 1997, pp. 164-182.
McLintock, A. H. (ed.) An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand Government, 1966, reproduced in Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/history-myths-in-new-zealand/10, accessed 30 July 2012.

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True or False: Book titles should be cited as they appear on the title page, not on the front cover or dust jacket of the text?
True!

 

Where a web page indicates a date when last revised/updated, I include this date after the web page title.
Correct!

 

True or False: For a URL with an embedded doi, I must ensure that the letters doi are lower case, followed by a colon and no space, and ensure that I remove the hyperlink and any underlining?
True!

 

In the bibliography, I include the full page range of a book chapter.
Correct!

 

True or False: I do not give chapter titles if I am using a chapter from a book which is all by the same author?
True!

 

For a reading on eReserve, I treat the reference as I would any other reference of its type. I do not reference to eReserve.
Correct!

 

Bibliography

 

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