This page explains:
- Variations in authors
- Variations in dates, editions, DOIs and web addresses
- Examples of some common references in academic writing
Click to expand:Single author
In-text, write only the author’s surname. Full name is recorded in the list of Works Cited.
The idea of progress is much overrated (Addington 32–33).
Addington states that . . . (32-33).
Addington, Henry. Cultural Cringe: A Study of Change. Routledge, 1994.
Provide the publisher but not the place of publication.
In-text, separate names with comma. Use ‘and’ preceded by a comma before the last name.
In the list of Works Cited, separate names with commas. Use ‘and’ preceded by a comma before the last name.
Mitchell and Myles claim . . . (189).
. . . is one of the strengths of this theory (Mitchell and Myles 189).
Three or more authors
In-text, cite only the first author’s surname, followed by ‘et al.’ Do not italicise.
In the list of Works Cited, provide only the first author’s name followed by et al.
Peters et al. base their study on the economic model (47).
This study is based on an economic model (Peters et al. 47).
Citing several sources at once
In text, authors’ names are presented alphabetically and each reference is separated by a semicolon (;).
Record all the authors’ names in the list of Works Cited.
Policy makers argue that the connection between science and business should not be viewed critically (Branscomb 45-46; Noble 60; Stokes 121-130).
Multiple works by the same author
In-text, include the title of the work (or a shortened version) in parentheses to distinguish one source from others by the same author.
In the Works Cited, list the works under the same name in alphabetical order by title.
Give the author’s name in the first entry only. For subsequent entries, type three hyphens — followed by a full stop, a space, and the title.
In an early study, Emerson (“Problems”) identified….. Later studies (“Bakhtin after”; “Bakhtin and the Actor”) modify this claim.
Authors with the same surname
(a) co-authors of a work
(b) separate works by different authors
In-text, where it is necessary to distinguish one author from the other, use the authors’ initials. Place initials before the surname in in-text citations.
(a) Scollon and Scollon argue that . . . (72).
(b) An early study on literacy programs (A. L. Brown) indicated . . . In a more recent study, S. Brown found that . . .
Cite the name of the organisation that produced the work. If none, then use the title of the work.
If the author is the same as the publisher, begin the Works Cited entry with the title of the work, and list only the publisher.
Do not use the terms ‘Anon.’ or ‘Anonymous’ if you cannot find an author.
The Syllabus Development Handbook advocates an inclusive approach in syllabus design (35).
Mobile phones have changed . . . (“Mobile Phones”).
Repeated citation from the same source
If you borrow from a single source repeatedly in a single paragraph, in subsequent sentences you may omit the author’s name after the first mention and only use the page number. You will have to repeat the name of the author if you introduce another source.
Be careful to avoid any ambiguity. If in doubt, repeat the full citation.
Middlemarch represents a microcosm of the social and political changes in the early eighteenth century: “The expectations of the characters are the expectations of various sections of society in general” (Thornton 154). Lydgate and Rosamond’s love becomes a “battle of ambition and vanity” (162).
Thornton, Alice. “Eliot’s Paradoxes: Relationships in Middlemarch.” Imperialism and Marriage, edited by Ian Zuckermann. U of Minnesota P, 2006. 123-171.
Variations in dates, editions, DOIs and websites
Click to expand:A work with no publication date
A work with no publication date
Use the date that you accessed the work if there is no obvious date of publication.
Theatre Projects Consultants identified . . . (34).
The evolution of theatre buildings . . . (Theatre Projects Consultants 34).
Theatre Projects Consultants. Types and Forms of Theatres. theatreprojects.com/files/pdf/Resources_IdeasInfo_typesandformsoftheatre.pdf. Accessed 3 June 2017.
If a source is 2nd or later edition, state the edition (xx ed.) after the title, separated by a full-stop. Do not italicise.
An ebook such as Kindle or ProQuest Ebook, is considered a version and this should be listed after the title and before the publisher.
Writers need to consider . . . (Heffernan et al. 218).
Heffernan, Jonathan A., et al. Writing, A College Handbook. 5th ed. Norton, 2001.
DOIs and URLs
MLA 8th edition recommends including the DOI or URL when citing online sources. A DOI (digital object identifier) is a series of numbers and letters that are unique for a particular source. Use the DOI rather than the URL if available. If using the URL, delete http:// from the Works Cited entry. Do not include the URL in text. Follow the URL or DOI with a full stop.
The date of access is generally not required in MLA, but it is a good idea to include it when no other copyright or publication date is present.
[Delete the http:// from the beginning of the URL. Insert a full stop after the URL.]
Examples of some common references in academic writing
Click to expand:Book
If an ebook does not have page numbers, do not use locations or device-specific numbers. Instead, if the book is separated into books, chapters or sections, use those parts to identify the location of your citation.
An ebook such as Kindle or ProQuest Ebook, is considered a version and this should be listed after the title and before the publisher.
(a) Baker et al. find that the concept . . . (4).
(b) Several levels of consciousness were found . . . (Tart).
(c) Sawyer found that the influence of peers was… (ch. 7).
(b) scholarly edition
(c) graphic novel
When a novel has numbered divisions, put the page number first, followed by a semi-colon and add book/chapter/section numbers with appropriate abbreviation.
For ebooks, if there is no page numbering, use chapters, books or sections to identify the citation.
For scholarly editions of classic novels, the date of original publication is placed immediately after the title. The editors of scholarly editions of novels are placed after the title.
(a) Jack imagines that his room is full of “skyscrapers and cows and ships and trucks” (Donoghue 112).
(b) Eliot describes Lydgate’s yearning to escape the misery of his marriage as having “a scheme of the universe in his soul” (217; bk. 3, ch.1).
(c) Staples’ illustrations in the graphic novel adopt the style of . . . (Vaughan and Staples).
Donoghue, Emma. Room. Picador, 2010.
Eliot, George. Middlemarch. 1872. Edited by Carol Watts, Penguin, 1998.
Vaughan, Brian and Fiona Staples. Saga. Vol. 8, Image Comics, 2017.
(a) Plays & (b) Poetry
When citing works with line numbers, omit the page numbers and cite the work by reference to divisions (act, scene, book) and lines, separating the numbers with full stops. For example, for act III, scene 2, lines 81-82, use 3.2.81-82.
If citing line numbers only, use the word ‘lines’ the first time you cite in text (lines 2-5), and thereafter use only numbers (4-6).
In short quotes, use a forward slash (/) to indicate the line breaks and two forward slashes (//) for stanza breaks.
Direct quotations 4 lines or longer are indented as a block, with no quotation marks. Put the full stop after the last word, not after the parenthetical citation.
(a) On hearing that Romeo has killed Tybalt, Juliet laments that . . . (3.2.81-82).
(b) (short quote)
In “To His Coy Mistress”, Marvell declares, “And yonder all before us lie / Deserts of vast eternity” (lines 23-4).
But at my back I always hear
Time’s winged chariot hurrying near;
And yonder all before us lie
Deserts of vast eternity. (lines 21-24)
Marvell suggests that the character can be seen in two roles (“To His Coy Mistress”).
Sacred texts, e.g. The Bible
For sacred texts, name the edition, and give book, chapter, and verse the first time you cite in text.
The Old Testament prophets often evoke strong imagery (New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. 1.5-10).
The New Jerusalem Bible. Edited by Howard Wansbrough. Doubleday, 1992.
Specify only the date of the edition used, not the date of the creation of the work.
Virgil expresses the view that . . . (Eclogues 6.19).
Virgil. Eclogues. Translated by Eugene V. Rieu. Norton, 1967.
Works of art (photos, paintings, sculptures, etc.)
In the Works Cited entry, for original art works, give information about the medium of composition, e.g. painting, sculpture, installation, etc. Give the institution and city in which the art work is located.
Include the name of the website in italics and the date of access if referring to a reproduction found online.
The pose of Rodin’s The Thinker has been copied and parodied innumerable times.
The romantic aspects of Wyeth’s painting are represented . . .
Reference to Original:
Reference to a Reproduction:
(a) entire website
(b) page on a website
Include URL (without http://), DOI or permalink, the date of access and the publication date when available.
No author: Use sponsor/organisation or title of the article if possible; otherwise, start with the title of the article in double quotation marks. Italicise the title of the entire website.
Publisher: The publisher may be omitted if there is no publisher, or if the website title is the same as the publisher.
(a) Rhetoric has been defined in various ways … (Burton)
(b) A recent report indicates that urgent changes in nutrition and agriculture policies are needed to prevent chronic non-communicable diseases (Pan American Health Organisation).
(a) article in a journal (print)
(b) article in an electronic journal (no doi)
(c) article in an electronic journal (doi)
The volume number follows the title of the journal. Use the abbreviations vol. for volume number and no. for issue number. The year follows the issue number, followed by pp. and the page range.
If you retrieved the article from a database, put the name of the database (e.g. ProQuest) in italics in your citation.
(a) Reid and Sand argue that . . . (26).
An earlier study (Reid and Sand) suggests that . . . (26).
(b) Cruz et al. found that . . .
The study found a link between … (Cruz et al.).
(c) Breeding alpacas can be a “life-changing experience” (McMullen 504).
Chapter in an edited book
Write an entry for the author of the chapter. Use the date of publication of the edited book.
If you use information from the introduction, foreword, preface, or afterword, show it in the works cited entry after the author’s name and before the book title.
Stories are an essential aspect of therapy (Phillips 14).
Corcoran and Evans argue that the “available range of children’s and adolescent literature has widened and deepened enormously”, so there needs to be some thought given to teaching approaches (1).
Reading on eReserve (University Library)
Treat the reference as you would any other reference of its type.
Burton argues that . . . (46).
Burton, Lawrence J. “Critical Thinking.” An Interactive Approach to Writing Essays and Research Reports in Psychology. 2nd ed., edited by Paul J. Edwards and James D. Bradfield, Wiley, 2006, pp. 45-53. eReserve.
Acknowledge the work of one author that you have found in the work of another. Use abbreviations ‘qtd. in’ (“quoted in”) or ‘ctd. in’ (“cited in”) in the parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence.
In the Works Cited list, include only the work that you have actually seen.
Note: It is always best to cite the original source if possible.
Gombrich argues that both art and nature are “needs of the mind” (qtd. in Norrington 22).
Nakayama et al. explain that the writing style of structured abstracts began in medical research journals in the 1980s (ctd. in Hartley 31).
Dictionaries / Encyclopaedias
(c) online dictionary or encyclopaedia
No page number required in in-text citations because entries are alphabetised in encyclopaedias and dictionaries. In the works cited list, the source will be alphabetised under the term that you consulted.
Do not include the publisher information.
Include the edition number (if any).
(a) A “primary verb” is one of the three verb types . . . (“Primary verb”).
(b) AC/DC, formed in 1973, became one of Australia’s best known rock groups (“AC/DC”).
(c) Tmesis involves separating syllables of a word with other intervening words, e.g. fan-damn-tastic (“Tmesis”).
Entry/202690?redirectedFrom=tmesis#eid. Accessed 2 Aug. 2017.
Treat a brochure or a pamphlet as you would a book. However, most pamphlets have no page numbers.
According to the High Country Urban Biodiversity Project, a large diversity of native wildflowers grows on the New England Tableland.
High Country Urban Biodiversity Project. Native Plants of Southern New England, New South Wales. NSW Environmental Trust, 2012.
UNE teaching materials
unit Information / topic notes / assessment / presentation slides / lectures
Cite in-text and in Works Cited. Give the instructor’s name. For speeches, lectures etc., use a descriptor that describes the type of presentation.
According to Waters, storytelling is . . . (32).
Bradfield argues that the kangaroo . . .
Newspaper or magazine article
(a) specified author
i. print newspaper
ii. online newspaper
(b) unspecified author
If no page number, use an article or section title. Online, the newspaper title is italicised. For an editorial or letter to the editor, include “Editorial” or “Letter” to identify the type of work.
(a) Target funding is not being met (Leech 13).
Adoniou suggests that . . .
(b) The situation on Manus island… (“Four Years on Manus”).
(print & online examples)
(give the director, lead actors or narrator; to emphasise specific performers or directors, begin with the name of the performer or director)
(d) television & radio programs
(e) TV & radio episodes
(f) Digital platforms (Netflix, Stan, Amazon Prime, etc.)
(g) YouTube video
(a) In The Third Man the music plays a key role in creating the sense of . . .
(b) Before the Flood explored . . .
(c) Fine-tuning the vocal folds creates different voice qualities . . . (Reid).
(d) “The Future of Work” examines the transition from . . .
(e) The representation of women in the fashion industry . . . (“The Shape Shifters”).
(f) The final episode in season 1, … (“Chapter Eights: The Upside Down”).
(g) Chomsky identifies two serious threats to humankind.
Begin with the artist name. If different from the artist, list the composer and performer after the title.
Individual songs are in quotation marks; album names are in italics. Give the name of the recording manufacturer and publication date
(b) Song on an album
(c) Song on Spotify
The Sydney Symphony Orchestra performed Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9 in D Minor . . .
The bassoon solo in the final section of Part 1 of Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring . . .
The lyrics in “Rainbowland” (Cyrus) are suggestive of . . .
The inspiration for Howlin’ Wolf’s “Smokestack Lightnin’” . . .
If you are citing the play, put the title of the play first in the Work Cited entry.
If you are citing a contribution of a particular individual, begin with that person’s name and role e.g. . performer, director, choreographer, conductor.
In the recent performance of Shepard’s play, Fool for Love, the role of May is played by Juliette Lewis . . .
To cite an advertisement, name the product or company followed by the word, “Advertisement”.
The use of children in advertising has been recently debated. For example, a recent Qantas television commercial depicts . . .
Information privately obtained e.g. personal conversation, interview, letter, email.
Darnell cast doubts on the statistical methods used.
In an email communication on 3 May 2008, Edward Hall explained . . .
Use the user’s twitter handle in place of the author’s name, and include the entire tweet in quotation marks as the title.
Provide the date and time of posting, using the reader’s time zone. Add the date accessed if necessary.
David Attenborough has commented on the importance of the natural world (@SirDavidBBC).