This page explains:
- Variations in authors
- Variations in dates, editions, DOIs and web addresses
- Examples of some common references in academic writing
Click to expand:Single author
In-text, write only the author’s surname. Full name is recorded in the list of Works Cited.
The idea of progress is much overrated (Addington 32–33).
Addington states that . . . (32-33).
Addington, Henry. Cultural Cringe: A Study of Change. London: Routledge, 1994. Print.
Two or three authors
In-text, separate names with comma. Use ‘and’ preceded by a comma before the last name.
In the list of Works Cited, separate names with commas. Use ‘and’ preceded by a comma before the last name.
King, Hunt, and Lee claim . . . (23).
Climate change remains controversial (King, Hunt, and Lee 23).
Four or more authors
In-text, cite only the first author’s surname, followed by ‘et al.’ Do not italicise.
Record all the authors’ names in the list of Works Cited. Use ‘and’ preceded by a comma before the last name.
Peters et al. base their study on the economic model (47).
This study is based on an economic model (Peters et al. 47).
Citing several sources at once
In text, authors’ names are presented alphabetically and each reference is separated by a semicolon (;).
Record all the authors’ names in the list of Works Cited.
Policy makers argue that the connection between science and business should not be viewed critically (Branscomb; Noble; Stokes).
Multiple works by the same author
In-text, include the title of the work (or a shortened version) in parentheses to distinguish one source from others by the same author.
In the Works Cited, list the works under the same name in alphabetical order by title.
In her first study, Sheldon (Language) supports the theory, but her two later studies (“Morphemic Resonance”; “Rules”) modify this claim.
Authors with the same surname
(a) co-authors of a work
(b) separate works by different authors
In-text, where it is necessary to distinguish one author from the other, use the authors’ initials. Place initials before the surname in in-text citations.
(a) Scollon and Scollon argue that . . .
(b) A report on the North West region (R.W. Jones) indicated . . . , but D.J. Jones has refuted the findings (183).
Cite the name of the organisation that produced the work. If none, then use the title of the work.
Do not use the terms ‘Anon.’ or ‘Anonymous’ if you cannot find an author.
The NSW Board of Studies advocates an inclusive approach in syllabus design (35).
Mobile phones have changed . . . (“Mobile Phones”).
Repeated citation from the same source
If you borrow from a single source repeatedly in a single paragraph, in subsequent sentences you may omit the author’s name after the first mention and only use the page number. You will have to repeat the name of the author if you introduce another source.
Be careful to avoid any ambiguity. If in doubt, repeat the full citation.
Middlemarch represents a microcosm of the social and political changes in the early eighteenth century: “The expectations of the characters are the expectations of various sections of society in general” (Thornton 154). Lydgate and Rosamond’s love becomes a “battle of ambition and vanity” (162).
Thornton, Alice. “Eliot’s Paradoxes: Relationships in Middlemarch.” Imperialism and Marriage. Ed. Ian Zuckermann. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2006. 123-171. Print.
Variations in dates, editions, DOIs and web addresses
Click to expand:A work with no publication date
A work with no publication date
‘n.d.’ means ‘no date’.
Shaw found that . . . (34).
One study by Shaw suggests . . . (34).
Shaw, Owen. Reflective Learning. London: Faber, n.d. Print.
If a source is 2nd or later edition, state the edition (xx ed.) after the title, separated by a full-stop. Do not italicise.
Writers need to consider . . . (Heffernan, Lincoln, and Atwill 218).
Heffernan, Jonathan A., Edward J. Lincoln, and Jane Atwill. Writing, A College Handbook. 5th ed. New York: Norton, 2001. Print.
MLA does not require the use of URLs because the web pages are not stable and readers can find the documents by title or author searches. However, if your lecturer requires a URL, place it at the end of your citation in Works Cited, inside angle brackets brackets with a full stop after the end angle bracket. Break URLs only after slashes. Right click to remove the hyperlink or underlining. Remove all UNE ezproxy details from the URL
Examples of some common references in academic writing
Click to expand:Book
In the Works Cited list, place the medium of publication at the end of the citation, e.g. Print, Web, Kindle file, e-book. PDF file, DVD, CD.
(a) Baker, Barrett, and Roberts find that the concept . . . (4).
(b) Several levels of consciousness were found . . . (Tart)
(b) Sawyer found that the influence of peers was…
When a novel has numbered divisions, put the page number first, followed by a semi-colon and add books/chapters.
Eliot’s fatal marriages are illustrated . . . (217; bk. 3, ch.1)
Eliot, George. Middlemarch. Ed. Carol Watts. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1998. Print.
(a) Plays & (b) Poetry
Citations of plays and poetry are more precise in terms of acts, scenes, lines, verses, e.g. Act III, scene 2, lines 7-13 and further references may use 3.2.7-13.
You can abbreviate the names of the famous literary works, e.g. Ham. (Hamlet), Mac. (Macbeth), FQ (Faerie Queene).
Use the word ‘lines’ the first time you cite in-text (lines 2-5), and thereafter use only numbers (4-6).
Direct quotations 4 lines or longer are indented as a block, with no quotation marks. Put the full stop after the last word, not after the parenthetical citation.
(a) Romeo and Juliet presents an opposition . . . (Act III, scene 2, lines 7-13).
(b) In “To His Coy Mistress”, Marvell declares, “And yonder all before us lie / Deserts of vast eternity” (lines 23-4). (short quote)
But at my back I always hear
Time’s winged chariot hurrying near;
And yonder all before us lie
Deserts of vast eternity. (lines 21-24)
Marvell suggests that the character can be seen in two roles (“To His Coy Mistress”).
Sacred texts, e.g. The Bible
For sacred texts, name the edition, and give book, chapter, and verse the first time you cite in text.
The Old Testament prophets often evoke strong imagery (New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. 1.5-10).
The New Jerusalem Bible. Ed. Howard Wansbrough. New York: Doubleday, 1992. Print.
Specify only the date of the edition used, not the date of the creation of the work.
Virgil is expressing the view that . . . (Eclogues 6.19).
Virgil. Eclogues. Trans. Eugene V. Rieu. New York: Norton, 1967. Print.
Works of art (photos, paintings, sculptures, etc.)
In the Works Cited entry, for original art works, give information about the medium of composition, e.g. painting, sculpture, installation, etc. Give the institution and city in which the art work is located.
The pose of Rodin’s The Thinker has been copied and parodied innumerable times.
The romantic aspects of Wyeth’s painting are represented . . .
Reference to Original:
Reference to a Reproduction:
(a) entire website
(b) page on a website
No author: Use sponsor/organisation or title of the article if possible; otherwise, start with the title of the article in double quotation marks. Italicise the title of the entire website.
Publisher: List the publisher/sponsor name followed by a comma. If no listed publisher, use N.p. instead.
One-page source: MLA does NOT require a page or paragraph reference.
No date of publication: use: n.d.
(a) The 66th Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO) conference discussed pandemic influenza preparedness as an agenda topic.
(b) A recent report indicates that urgent changes in nutrition and agriculture policies are needed to prevent chronic non-communicable diseases (Pan American Health Organisation).
(a) article in a journal (print)
(b) article in an electronic journal
(c) article in a database
The volume number follows the title of the journal. Add a full-stop and the issue number directly after the volume number. Do not use the wordsvolume, number or their abbreviations. The year is in paren- theses, followed by a colon and pages.
Add the medium at the end of the citation, e.g. Print, Web.
When no page is indicated, use ‘n.pag.’.
Put the name of the database (e.g. ProQuest) in italics in your citation.
(a) Reid and Sand argue that . . . (26).
An earlier study (Reid and Sand) suggests that . . . (26).
(b) Hopkins found that . . .
A survey of large trans-national corporations found that (Hopkins).
(c) Nutrition is an integral part of effective healing (Leninger 14).
Chapter in an edited book
Write an entry for the author of the chapter. Use the date of publication of the edited book.
Use ‘Ed.’(note the full-stop!) for one or many editors.
If you use information from the introduction, foreword, preface, or afterword, show it in the works cited entry after the author’s name and before the book title.
Stories are an essential aspect of therapy (Phillips 14).
Corcoran and Evans argue that the “available range of children’s and adolescent literature has widened and deepened enormously”, so there needs to be some thought given to teaching approaches (1).
Reading on eReserve (Dixson Library)
Treat the reference as you would any other reference of its type.
Burton argues that . . . (46).
Burton, Lawrence J. “Critical thinking.” An Interactive Approach to Writing Essays and Research Reports in Psychology. 2nd ed. Ed. Paul J. Edwards and James D. Bradfield. Milton, Qld: Wiley, 2006. 45-53. PDF file.
Acknowledge the work of one author that you have found in the work of another. Use abbreviations ‘qtd. in’ (“quoted in”) or ‘ctd. in’ (“cited in”) in the parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence.
In the Works Cited list, include only the work that you have actually seen.
Gombrich argues that both art and nature are “needs of the mind” (qtd. in Norrington 22).
Nakayama et al. explain that the writing style of structured abstracts began in medical research journals in the 1980s (ctd. in Hartley 31).
Dictionaries / Encyclopaedias
(c) online dictionary or encyclopedia
No page number required in in-text citations because entries are alphabetised in encyclopedias and dictionaries. In the works cited list, the source will be alphabetised under the term that you consulted.
Include the edition number (if any).
(a) A “primary verb” is one of the three verb types . . . (“Primary verb”).
(b) AC/DC, formed in 1973, became one of Australia’s best known rock groups (“AC/DC”).
(c) Tmesis involves separating syllables of a word with other intervening words, e.g. fan-damn-tastic (“Tmesis”).
Treat a brochure or a pamphlet as you would a book. However, most pamphlets have no page numbers.
According to the High Country Urban Biodiversity Project, a large diversity of native wildflowers grows on the New England Tableland.
High Country Urban Biodiversity Project. Native Plants of Southern New England, New South Wales. NSW Environmental Trust, 2012. Print.
UNE teaching materials
unit Information / topic notes / assessment / presentation slides / lectures
Cite in-text and in Works Cited. Give the instructor’s name, and include the type and medium of information source (e.g. print, CD, lecture, Powerpoint).
According to Fisher, there are two types of ethical concerns facing multinational corporations (32).
Bradfield argues that the kangaroo . . .
Newspaper or magazine article
(a) specified author
i. print newspaper
ii. online newspaper
(b) unspecified author
If no page number, use an article or section title. Online, the newspaper title is italicised followed by the publisher, not in italics.
(a) Target funding is not being met (Leech 13).
Leech suggests that . . . (13)
(b) Debt levels have fallen (“Editorial”) . . .
(print & online examples)
(d) television & Radio programs
(e) TV & radio episodes
(a) In The Third Man the music plays a key role in creating the sense of . . .
(b) Australia’s Geological History explored . . .
(c) Fine-tuning the vocal folds creates different voice qualities . . . (Reid).
(d) The Future of Work examines the modern notion of productivity . . .
(e) The dialogue demonstrates the tension in the city’s projects (“The Outback Tragedy”).
Indicate the medium in the Works Cited list.
The Sydney Symphony Orchestra performed Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9 in D Minor . . .
The bassoon solo in Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring . . .
If you are citing the play, put the title of the play first in the Work Cited entry.
If you are citing a contribution of a particular individual, begin with that person’s name and role e.g. Perf. (performer), Dir. (director), Chor. (Choreographer), Cond. (Conductor).
In the recent performance of Shepard’s play, Fool for Love, the role of May is played by Juliette Lewis . . .
To cite an advertisement, name the product or company followed by the word, “Advertisement”.
Name the medium at the end of the Works Cited entry.
The use of children in advertising has been recently debated. For example, a recent Qantas television commercial depicts . . .
Information privately obtained e.g. personal conversation, interview, letter, email.
Darnell cast doubts on the statistical methods used.
In an email communication on 3 May 2008, Edward Hall explained . . .