MLA

The following provides a comprehensive beginner’s guide to entries in the MLA referencing system.

For more information on how to access the MLA referencing style please visit: MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th edition).

This page explains:

Variations in authors

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Single author

Single author

In-text, write only the author’s surname. Full name is recorded in the list of Works Cited.

Type Works Cited – centre at top of a new page/not italics/not bold/same size as text.
In-text

The idea of progress is much overrated (Addington 32–33).
Addington states that . . . (32-33).

Works Cited

Addington, Henry. Cultural Cringe: A Study of Change. London: Routledge, 1994. Print.

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Two or three authors
 

Two or three authors

In-text, separate names with comma. Use ‘and’ preceded by a comma before the last name.

In the list of Works Cited, separate names with commas. Use ‘and’ preceded by a comma before the last name.

In-text

King, Hunt, and Lee claim . . . (23).
Climate change remains controversial (King, Hunt, and Lee 23).

Works Cited
King, Terrence, Edward Hunt, and John L. Lee. Weather Matters. Boston: Harvard UP, 1992. Print.
Reverse only the name of the first author.

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Four or more authors
 

Four or more authors

In-text, cite only the first author’s surname, followed by ‘et al.’ Do not italicise.

Record all the authors’ names in the list of Works Cited. Use ‘and’ preceded by a comma before the last name.

In-text

Peters et al. base their study on the economic model (47).
This study is based on an economic model (Peters et al. 47).

Works Cited
Peters, Carl, Tomoko Suzuki, Yves T. Corrigan, Peter Najar, and Edgar Thomas.New Economies for New Times. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1995. Print.
Reverse only the name of the first author.

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Citing several sources at once
 

Citing several sources at once

In text, authors’ names are presented alphabetically and each reference is separated by a semicolon (;).

Record all the authors’ names in the list of Works Cited.

In-text

Policy makers argue that the connection between science and business should not be viewed critically (Branscomb; Noble; Stokes).

Works Cited
Branscomb, Ivan. Investing in Innovation. New York: Routledge, 1997. Print.
Noble, Barry. America by Design. New York: Knopf, 1993. Print.
Stokes, David. Pasteur’s Quadrant. Washington, DC: Brookings Inst., 1997. Print.

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Multiple works by the same author
 

Multiple works by the same author

In-text, include the title of the work (or a shortened version) in parentheses to distinguish one source from others by the same author.

In the Works Cited, list the works under the same name in alphabetical order by title.

In-text

In her first study, Sheldon (Language) supports the theory, but her two later studies (“Morphemic Resonance”; “Rules”) modify this claim.

Works Cited
Sheldon, Stephanie. Language Limits. London: Duckworth, 1996. Print.
—. “Morphemic Resonance: A New Dimension.” Discourse Studies 23.4 (1999): 67–72. Print.
—. “Rules and Tools.” Journal of Semantics 43 (1999): 23–45. JSTOR. Web. 17 May 2009.
Give the author’s name in the first entry only. For subsequent entries, type three hyphens — followed by a full stop, a space, and the title.

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Authors with the same surname
 

Authors with the same surname

(a) co-authors of a work

(b) separate works by different authors

In-text, where it is necessary to distinguish one author from the other, use the authors’ initials. Place initials before the surname in in-text citations.

In-text

(a) Scollon and Scollon argue that . . .

(b) A  report on the North West region (R.W. Jones) indicated . . . , but D.J. Jones has refuted the findings (183).

Works Cited
(a)
Scollon, Ron, and Suzie W. Scollon. Intercultural Communication. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 2001. Web. 11 June 2009.
(b)
Jones, David J. Review of Social Needs in the North West Region. Lismore, NSW: FACS, 1993. Print.
(b)
Jones, Randall W. Report to the CARE Centre. Armidale, NSW: DOCS, 1991. Web. 23 Nov. 2008.

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Author unknown
 

Author unknown

Cite the name of the organisation that produced the work. If none, then use the title of the work.

Do not use the terms ‘Anon.’ or ‘Anonymous’ if you cannot find an author.

In-text

The NSW Board of Studies advocates an inclusive approach in syllabus design (35).

Mobile phones have changed . . . (“Mobile Phones”).

Works Cited
NSW Board of Studies. Syllabus Development Handbook. Sydney: NSW Board of Studies, 2006. Print.
“Mobile Phones: The Changes to Mobile Phones over the Last 30 Years.” People History. 2012. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. .

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Repeated citation from the same source
 

Repeated citation from the same source

If you borrow from a single source repeatedly in a single paragraph, in subsequent sentences you may omit the author’s name after the first mention and only use the page number. You will have to repeat the name of the author if you introduce another source.

Be careful to avoid any ambiguity. If in doubt, repeat the full citation.

In-text

Middlemarch represents a microcosm of the social and political changes in the early eighteenth century: “The expectations of the characters are the expectations of various sections of society in general” (Thornton 154). Lydgate and Rosamond’s love becomes a “battle of ambition and vanity” (162).

Works Cited

Thornton, Alice. “Eliot’s Paradoxes: Relationships in Middlemarch.” Imperialism and Marriage. Ed. Ian Zuckermann. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2006. 123-171. Print.

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Variations in dates, editions, DOIs and web addresses

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A work with no publication date

A work with no publication date

‘n.d.’ means ‘no date’.

In-text

Shaw found that . . . (34).

One study by Shaw suggests . . . (34).

Works Cited

Shaw, Owen. Reflective Learning. London: Faber, n.d. Print.

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Edition
 

Edition

If a source is 2nd or later edition, state the edition (xx ed.) after the title, separated by a full-stop. Do not italicise.

In-text

Writers need to consider . . . (Heffernan, Lincoln, and Atwill 218).

Works Cited

Heffernan, Jonathan A., Edward J. Lincoln, and Jane Atwill. Writing, A College Handbook. 5th ed. New York: Norton, 2001. Print.

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URLS
 

URLs

MLA does not require the use of URLs because the web pages are not stable and readers can find the documents by title or author searches. However, if your lecturer requires a URL, place it at the end of your citation in Works Cited, inside angle brackets brackets with a full stop after the end angle bracket. Break URLs only after slashes. Right click to remove the hyperlink or underlining. Remove all UNE ezproxy details from the URL.ezproxy. une.edu.au /view/10.1093/acref/9780192800879.001.0001/acref-9780192800879

. [Insert a full stop after the angle bracket.]

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Examples of some common references in academic writing

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Book

Book

(a) print

(b) online

In the Works Cited list, place the medium of publication at the end of the citation, e.g. Print, Web, Kindle file, e-book. PDF file, DVD, CD.

In-text

(a) Baker, Barrett, and Roberts find that the concept . . . (4).

(b) Several levels of consciousness were found . . . (Tart)

(b) Sawyer found that the influence of peers was…

Works Cited
(a)
Baker, Ellen, Michelle Barrett, and Louise Roberts. Working Communication. Milton, Qld: Wiley, 2002. Print.
(b)
Tart, Charles T. States of Consciousness. U of Pennsylvania P, 1997. Web. 3 Jul. 2009. .
(b)
Sawyer, Andrew. Language Socialization in Multilingual Societies. New York: ACLS, 2010. Kindle file.

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Novels
 

Novels

When a novel has numbered divisions, put the page number first, followed by a semi-colon and add books/chapters.

In-text

Eliot’s fatal marriages are illustrated . . . (217; bk. 3, ch.1)

Works Cited

Eliot, George. Middlemarch. Ed. Carol Watts. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1998. Print.

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Plays & Poetry
 

(a) Plays & (b) Poetry

Citations of plays and poetry are more precise in terms of acts, scenes, lines, verses, e.g. Act III, scene 2, lines 7-13 and further references may use 3.2.7-13.

You can abbreviate the names of the famous literary works, e.g. Ham. (Hamlet), Mac. (Macbeth), FQ (Faerie Queene).

Use the word ‘lines’ the first time you cite in-text (lines 2-5), and thereafter use only numbers (4-6).

Direct quotations 4 lines or longer are indented as a block, with no quotation marks. Put the full stop after the last word, not after the parenthetical citation.

In-text

(a) Romeo and Juliet presents an opposition . . . (Act III, scene 2, lines 7-13).

(b) In “To His Coy Mistress”, Marvell declares, “And yonder all before us lie / Deserts of vast eternity” (lines 23-4). (short quote)

Marvell’s “To His Coy Mistress” is rich and evocative in detail: (blocked quote)
But at my back I always hear
Time’s winged chariot hurrying near;
And yonder all before us lie
Deserts of vast eternity. (lines 21-24)

Marvell suggests that the character can be seen in two roles (“To His Coy Mistress”).

This comment refers to the whole poem, so no line numbers are needed.
Works Cited
(a)
Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet. Ed. Barbara Mowat and Peter Werstine. New York: Washington Square-Pocket, 1992. Print.
(b)
Marvell, Andrew. “To His Coy Mistress.” Ed. Xavier J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia. Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. 9th ed. New York: Longman, 2005. 1208-09. Print.

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Sacred texts, e.g. The Bible
 

Sacred texts, e.g. The Bible

For sacred texts, name the edition, and give book, chapter, and verse the first time you cite in text.

In-text

The Old Testament prophets often evoke strong imagery (New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. 1.5-10).

Subsequent references require only book, chapter, and verse.
Works Cited

The New Jerusalem Bible. Ed. Howard Wansbrough. New York: Doubleday, 1992. Print.

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The classics
 

The Classics

Specify only the date of the edition used, not the date of the creation of the work.

In-text

Virgil is expressing the view that . . . (Eclogues 6.19).

The numbering of divisions (stanzas or lines) remains the same in all editions; use division numbers rather than page numbers.
Works Cited

Virgil. Eclogues. Trans. Eugene V. Rieu. New York: Norton, 1967. Print.

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Works of art (photos, paintings, sculptures, etc.)
 

Works of art (photos, paintings, sculptures, etc.)

In the Works Cited entry, for original art works, give information about the medium of composition, e.g. painting, sculpture, installation, etc. Give the institution and city in which the art work is located.

In-text

The pose of Rodin’s The Thinker has been copied and parodied innumerable times.

The romantic aspects of Wyeth’s painting are represented . . .

Works Cited

Reference to Original:

Rodin, Auguste. The Thinker. 1902. Bronze and marble sculpture. Musée Rodin, Paris.

Reference to a Reproduction:

Rodin, Auguste. The Thinker. 1902. French Modernist Sculpture. Ed. Richard Collins. Cambridge: MIT P, 2007. 94. Print.
Wyeth, Andrew. Christina’s World. 1948. MoMA: The Collection. Museum of Modern Art: New York. Web. 22 Oct. 2007.

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Website
 

Website

(a) entire website

(b) page on a website

No author: Use sponsor/organisation or title of the article if possible; otherwise, start with the title of the article in double quotation marks. Italicise the title of the entire website.

Publisher: List the publisher/sponsor name followed by a comma. If no listed publisher, use N.p. instead.

One-page source: MLA does NOT require a page or paragraph reference.

No date of publication: use: n.d.

In-text

(a) The 66th Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO) conference discussed pandemic influenza preparedness as an agenda topic.

(b) A recent report indicates that urgent changes in nutrition and agriculture policies are needed to prevent chronic non-communicable diseases (Pan American Health Organisation).

Works Cited
(a)
Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO). Coverage of the 66th World Health Assembly. Web. 23 May 2013.
(b)
Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO).“Health – not Market Interests.” Pan American Health Organisation. 1 May 2013. Web. 5 May 2013.
MLA no longer requires URLs. However, if your lecturer requires URLs for the web sources in your works cited list, follow these instructions: when you paste in the URL, Do not start on a new line. Paste it next to the comma that comes after the viewing date. Then, you can get part of the address to sit on the same line by using a ‘soft return’ (hold down ‘shift’ and tap ‘return’). Only do this after a slash.

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Journal articles
 

Journal articles

(a) article in a journal (print)

(b) article in an electronic journal

(c) article in a database

The volume number follows the title of the journal. Add a full-stop and the issue number directly after the volume number. Do not use the wordsvolume, number or their abbreviations. The year is in paren- theses, followed by a colon and pages.

Add the medium at the end of the citation, e.g. Print, Web.

When no page is indicated, use ‘n.pag.’.

Put the name of the database (e.g. ProQuest) in italics in your citation.

In-text

(a) Reid and Sand argue that . . . (26).

An earlier study (Reid and Sand) suggests that . . . (26).

(b) Hopkins found that . . .

A survey of large trans-national corporations found that (Hopkins).

(c) Nutrition is an integral part of effective healing (Leninger 14).

Works Cited
(a)
Reid, Jason, and Rosemary Sand. “The Wood and the Grove.” Journal of Mythology 9.1 (1987): 23–34. Print.
(b)
Hopkins, Mary. “Corporate Social Responsibility Around the World.”Online Journal of Ethics 2.2 (1998): n.pag. Web. 15 Oct. 2008.
(c)
Leninger, Sarah M. “The Role of Nutrition in Wound Healing.” Critical Care Nursing Quarterly 24.1 (2002): 13–21. ProQuest. Web. 27 Feb. 2010.
At the end of the works cited entry, add your date of access.

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Chapter in an edited book
 

Chapter in an edited book

Write an entry for the author of the chapter. Use the date of publication of the edited book.

Use ‘Ed.’(note the full-stop!) for one or many editors.

If you use information from the introduction, foreword, preface, or afterword, show it in the works cited entry after the author’s name and before the book title.

In-text

Stories are an essential aspect of therapy (Phillips 14).

Corcoran and Evans argue that the “available range of children’s and adolescent literature has widened and deepened enormously”, so there needs to be some thought given to teaching approaches (1).

Works Cited
Phillips, Jeremy. “The Psychodynamic Narrative.” Healing Stories: Narrative in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy. Ed. Garry Roberts and Joan Holmes. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1999. 7–15. Print.
Corcoran, Bill, and Emrys Evans. Introduction. Readers, Texts and Teachers. Ed. Bill Corcoran and Emrys Evans. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1987. 1–6. Print.

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Reading on eReserve (Dixson Library)
 

Reading on eReserve (Dixson Library)

Treat the reference as you would any other reference of its type.

In-text

Burton argues that . . . (46).

Works Cited

Burton, Lawrence J. “Critical thinking.” An Interactive Approach to Writing Essays and Research Reports in Psychology. 2nd ed. Ed. Paul J. Edwards and James D. Bradfield. Milton, Qld: Wiley, 2006. 45-53. PDF file.

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Secondary reference
 

Secondary reference

Acknowledge the work of one author that you have found in the work of another. Use abbreviations ‘qtd. in’ (“quoted in”) or ‘ctd. in’ (“cited in”) in the parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence.

In the Works Cited list, include only the work that you have actually seen.

In-text

Gombrich argues that both art and nature are “needs of the mind” (qtd. in Norrington 22).

Nakayama et al. explain that the writing style of structured abstracts began in medical research journals in the 1980s (ctd. in Hartley 31).

Works Cited
Norrington, Frederick. New Aesthetics: Life in Art. London: Faber & Faber, 1989. Print.
Hartley, James. Academic Writing and Publishing: A Practical Handbook.London: Routledge, 2008. Print.

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Dictionaries / Encyclopaedias
 

Dictionaries / Encyclopaedias

(a) dictionary

(b) encyclopedia

(c) online dictionary or encyclopedia

No page number required in in-text citations because entries are alphabetised in encyclopedias and dictionaries. In the works cited list, the source will be alphabetised under the term that you consulted.

Include the edition number (if any).

In-text

(a) A “primary verb” is one of the three verb types . . . (“Primary verb”).

(b) AC/DC, formed in 1973, became one of Australia’s best known rock groups (“AC/DC”).

(c) Tmesis involves separating syllables of a word with other intervening words, e.g. fan-damn-tastic (“Tmesis”).

The in-text citation here refers to the consulted term, not the author. The term is placed in quotation marks and parentheses at the end of the sentence.
Works Cited
(a)
“Primary verb”. The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2009. Print.
(b)
“AC/DC”. Encyclopedia of Australian Rock and Pop. Ed. Ian McFarlane. St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin, 1999. Print.
(c)
“Tmesis.” Oxford Dictionaries Online. 2013. Web. 2 Aug. 2013.

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Pamphlet/brochure
 

Pamphlet/brochure

Treat a brochure or a pamphlet as you would a book. However, most pamphlets have no page numbers.

In-text

According to the High Country Urban Biodiversity Project, a large diversity of native wildflowers grows on the New England Tableland.

Works Cited

High Country Urban Biodiversity Project. Native Plants of Southern New England, New South Wales. NSW Environmental Trust, 2012. Print.

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UNE teaching materials
 

UNE teaching materials

unit Information / topic notes / assessment / presentation slides / lectures

Cite in-text and in Works Cited. Give the instructor’s name, and include the type and medium of information source (e.g. print, CD, lecture, Powerpoint).

In-text

According to Fisher, there are two types of ethical concerns facing multinational corporations (32).

Bradfield argues that the kangaroo . . .

Works Cited
Fisher, Josie. GSB 751: Business Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability, Study Guide. Armidale, NSW: University of New England, Graduate School of Business, 2011. Print.
Bradfield, James D. “Kangaroo: An Extraordinary Marsupial.” Armidale, NSW: University of New England, School of Environmental and Rural Sciences. 17 Apr. 2010. Lecture.

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Newspaper or magazine article
 

Newspaper or magazine article

(a) specified author

i. print newspaper

ii. online newspaper

(b) unspecified author

If no page number, use an article or section title. Online, the newspaper title is italicised followed by the publisher, not in italics.

In-text

(a) Target funding is not being met (Leech 13).

Leech suggests that . . . (13)

(b) Debt levels have fallen (“Editorial”) . . .

Works Cited

(print & online examples)

(a i.)
Leech, Garry. “Call for Research Shake-up.” The Australian 19 Sept. 2002: 13. Print.
(a ii.)
Leech, Garry. “Call for Research Shake-up.” The Australian. News Corp Australia, 19 Sept. 2002. Web. 18 Aug. 2008.
(b)

Editorial.” The Economist. The Economist, 17 Apr. 1997. Web. 2 May 2001.

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Audio-visual
 

Audio-visual

(a) film

(b) DVD

(c) CD-ROM

(d) television & Radio programs

(e) TV & radio episodes

In-text

(a) In The Third Man the music plays a key role in creating the sense of . . .

(b) Australia’s Geological History explored . . .

(c) Fine-tuning the vocal folds creates different voice qualities . . . (Reid).

(d) The Future of Work examines the modern notion of productivity . . .

(e) The dialogue demonstrates the tension in the city’s projects (“The Outback Tragedy”).

Works Cited
(a)
The Third Man. Dir. Carol Reed. Perf. Joseph Cotten, Alida Valli, Orson Welles, and Trevor Howard. RKO, 1949. Film.
Give the director (Dir.) and lead actors (Perf.) or narrator (Narr.)
(b)
Australia’s Geological History. Natl. Geographic Educ., 1986. DVD.
(c)
Reid, Nicholas. Phonetics: An Interactive Introduction. Armidale, NSW: University of New England, 2004. CD-ROM.
(d)
The Future of Work. ABC Radio National, Sydney, 26 Nov. 2010. Radio.
(e)
“The Outback Tragedy.” Australian Story. SBS Television, 12 Feb. 2009. Television.

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Music
 

Music

Indicate the medium in the Works Cited list.

In-text

The Sydney Symphony Orchestra performed Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9 in D Minor . . .

The bassoon solo in Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring . . .

Works Cited
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 9 in D Minor. Sydney Symphony Orchestra. Cond. Herbert von Karajan. DECCA, 1983. LP.
Stravinsky, Igor. Rite of Spring. 1910. London: Hansen House, 1975. Print.

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Performance
 

Performance

If you are citing the play, put the title of the play first in the Work Cited entry.

If you are citing a contribution of a particular individual, begin with that person’s name and role e.g. Perf. (performer), Dir. (director), Chor. (Choreographer), Cond. (Conductor).

In-text

In the recent performance of Shepard’s play, Fool for Love, the role of May is played by Juliette Lewis . . .

Works Cited
Fool for Love. By Sam Shepard. Dir. Lindsay Posner. Perf. Juliette Lewis and Martin Henderson. Apollo Theatre, London. 1 Jul. 2006. Performance.
Lewis, Juliette, Perf. Fool for Love. By Sam Shepard. Dir. Lindsay Posner. Apollo Theatre, London. 1 Jul. 2006. Performance.

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Advertisements
 

Advertisements

To cite an advertisement, name the product or company followed by the word, “Advertisement”.

Name the medium at the end of the Works Cited entry.

In-text

The use of children in advertising has been recently debated. For example, a recent Qantas television commercial depicts . . .

Works Cited
From a TV commercial
Qantas. Advertisement. NBN. 4 Apr. 2010. Television.
From a newspaper
Vodaphone. Advertisement. Sydney Morning Herald 7 Jan. 2011: 9. Print.

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Personal communication
 

Personal communication

Information privately obtained e.g. personal conversation, interview, letter, email.

In-text

Darnell cast doubts on the statistical methods used.

In an email communication on 3 May 2008, Edward Hall explained . . .

Works Cited
Darnell, Peter. Personal interview. 22 Nov. 2003.
Hall, Edward. Message to the author. 3 May 2008. E-mail.

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True or False: I type the words Works Cited - centre at top of a new page/no italics/not bolded/same size as text?
True!

 

MLA does not require the use of URLs because the web pages are not stable and readers can find the documents by title or author searches. However, if my lecturer requires a URL, I place it at the end of my citation in Works Cited, inside angle brackets brackets with a full stop after the end angle bracket.
Correct!

 

The terms ‘Anon.’ or ‘Anonymous’ are not used if you cannot find an author.
Correct!

 

If a source is 2nd or later edition, state the edition (xx ed.) after the title, separated by a full-stop. I do not italicise.
Correct!

 

True or False: In the Works Cited list, I place the medium of publication at the end of the citation?
True!

 

For sacred texts, I name the edition, and give book, chapter, and verse the first time I cite in text.
Correct!

 

In the Works Cited list, I include only the work that I have actually seen.
Correct!

 

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