Chicago

The following provides a comprehensive beginner’s guide to entries in the Chicago (Author-Date) referencing system. General rules for authors, dates and editions apply to all sources of information including print, media and Internet sources.

For more information on how to access the Chicago referencing style please visit: Chicago Manual of Style 16th Edition.

This page explains:

Variations in authors

Click to expand:

Single authors

Single authors

Write the author’s surname only in-text. For the reference list, use the form of author’s name as it on the title page or at the head of an article or chapter.

Type References or Works Cited on new page/centre/same size text/do not use italics.
In-text

The idea of progress is much overrated (Addington 1994, 32–33).

Addington (1994, 32–33) states that . . .

References OR Works Cited

Addington, Henry. 1994. Cultural Cringe: A Study of Change. London: Routledge.

Back to top of page

Two or three authors

Two or three authors

Use ‘and’ between authors in your sentence and in the reference list.

First author begins with surname, after that other authors start with the given name.

In-text

King, Hunt, and Lee (1992, 23) claim . . .

Climate change remains controversial (King, Hunt, and Lee 1992, 23).

References OR Works Cited

King, Terrence, Edward Hunt, and John Lee. 1992. Weather Matters. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Back to top of page

Four or more authors

Four or more authors

Cite only the first author’s surname, followed by et al. (not italics).

Record all the authors’ names in References OR Works Cited.
In-text

Peters et al. (1995) base their study on the economic model.

This study is based on an economic model (Peters et al. 1995).

References OR Works Cited

Peters, Carl, Tomoko Suzuki, Yves T. Corrigan, Peter Najar, and Edgar Thomas. 1995. New Economies for New Times. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Back to top of page

Citing several sources at once

Citing several sources at once

In text, authors’ names should be presented alphabetically, and each reference is separated by a semicolon (;).

In-text

Policy makers argue that the connection between science and business should not be viewed critically (Branscomb 1997; Noble 1993; Stokes 1997).

References OR Works Cited
Branscomb, Ivan. 1997. Investing in Innovation. New York: Routledge.
Noble, Barry. 1993. America by Design. New York: Knopf.
Stokes, David. 1997. Pasteur’s Quadrant. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Back to top of page

Multiple works by the same author

Multiple works by the same author

Use a, b, c … to differentiate between works written in the same year.

Use 3-Em dash (control – alt – minus) followed by a full stop instead of repeating the same author’s name in References OR Works Cited only.

Please, be careful when using the 3-em dash – only use it in the very final editing stages.
In-text

In her first study, Sheldon (1996) supports the theory, but her two later studies (1999a, 1999b) modify this claim.

References OR Works Cited
Sheldon, Stephanie. 1996. Language Limits. London: Duckworth.
—. 1999a. “Morphemic Resonance: A New Dimension.” Discourse Studies, 23 (4): 67–72.
—. 1999b. “Rules and Tools.” Journal of Semantics, 43 (Spring): 23–45.
Give the name in the first entry only. For subsequent entries, use the 3-Em dash followed by a full stop and the title.

Back to top of page

Authors with the same surname

Authors with the same surname

(a) co-authors of a work

(b) separate works

In text, where it is necessary to distinguish one author from the other, use the authors’ initials.

Place the initials before the surname.

In-text

(a) Scollon, Scollon, and Jones (2011) argue that . . .

(b) A recent report (R. W. Jones 1991) indicated . . . but the findings have been refuted (D.J. Jones 1993).

References OR Works Cited
(a)
Scollon, Ron, Suzanne W. Scollon, and Rodney H. Jones. 2011.Intercultural Communication. 3rd edn. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. http://eblib.com.au.
(b)
Jones, David J. 1993. Review of Social Needs in the North West Region. Lismore, NSW: FACS.
(b)
Jones, Randall W. 1991. Report to the CARE Centre. Armidale, NSW: DOCS.

Back to top of page

No personal author or editor

No personal author or editor

(a) organisation / corporate author

(b) title or first few words

Cite the name of the organisation (corporate author) that produced the work. If none, then use the title of the work in italics.

DO NOT use the terms ‘Anon.’ or ‘Anonymous’ if you cannot find an author.
In-text

(a) The NSW Board of Studies (2006, 35) advocates an inclusive approach in syllabus design.

(b) Reducing friction is essential (Pressure Care 2000, 3).

References OR Works Cited
(a)
NSW Board of Studies. 2006. Syllabus Development Handbook. Sydney: NSW Board of Studies. http://www. boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/manuals/
pdf_doc/syl_dev_handbook.pdf.
(b)
Pressure Care. 2000. Perth: New Health Press.

Back to top of page

 

Variations in dates, editions and web addresses

Click to expand:

A work with no publication date

A work with no publication date

‘n.d.’ means ‘no date’.

Be careful about using work without a date as authentic academic writing is usually dated.
In-text

Shaw (n.d.) found that . . .

One study (Shaw n.d.) suggests . . .

References OR Works Cited

Shaw, Owen. (n.d.). Reflective Learning. London: Faber.

Back to top of page

Later edition

Later edition

If a source is 2nd or later edition, state the edition after the title.

Write edition as an abbreviation in lower case—ed. (not italics).

In-text

Writers need to consider . . . (Heffernan, Lincoln, and Atwill 2001, 218)

References OR Works Cited

Heffernan, Jonathan A., Edward J. Lincoln, and Jane Atwill. 2001.Writing, A College Handbook. 5th ed. New York: W. W. Norton.

Back to top of page

The DOIs and URLs

The DOIs and URLs

A DOI is a unique set of numbers that provides a permanent link to a document’s online location. The DOI is located on the first page of the electronic article.

If no DOI, use the home page URL.

For eBooks and journal articles from the UNE server (ezproxy), only the ‘root’ of the URL (host or domain name) is used in the URL.

Use this format for the DOI in references: doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195365825.001.0001.
Note doi is lower case, followed by a colon and no space and the doi address with a full stop at the end of the doi..

Remove the hyperlink (or underline) by right clicking on the hyperlink.

Avoid long strings in the URL (ezproxy) by providing only the root of the URL e.g.

Chalker, Sylvia, and Weiner, Edmund. 1998. The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar. http://www.oxfordreference.com.ezproxy. une.edu.au /view/10.1093/acref
/9780192800879.001.0001/acref-9780192800879

Back to top of page

 

Examples of some common references in academic writing

Click to expand:

Book

Book

(a) print

(b) online (e-book)

Use URL or the DOI, or if downloaded from publisher or bookseller indicate the file format, e.g. Kindle edition, PDF e-book, Microsoft Reader e-book, Palm e-book.

If no page number, use paragraph (par.), chapter (chap.), section (sec.).

In-text

(a) Baker, Barrett and Roberts (2002, 4) find that the concept . . .

(b) Several levels of consciousness were found . . . (Tart 1997, chap. 3, par. 4)

(b) There is a shift from satire to irony in Gulliver’s Travels (Swift 2009, sec. 24).

References OR Works Cited
(a)
Baker, Ellen, Michelle Barrett, and Louise Roberts. 2002. Working Communication. Milton, QLD: John Wiley.
(b)
Tart, Charles. 1997. States of Consciousness. http://www.netlibrary.net
(b)
Swift, Jonathan. 2009. Gulliver’s Travels. Harmondsworth:
Penguin Classics. Kindle edition.

Back to top of page

Website / part of a website (online)

Website / part of a website (online)

If no person, corporate author or editor can be found, use title or first few words of the article in italics.

If no page, use paragraph number.

Access dates are only included for items without a date of publication or modification e.g. accessed July 19, 2012, http://www.sociostudies.org/
journal/articles/140630/.

The website name uses maximal capitalisation and is italicised. A web page or section of a larger site should be in double quotation marks (not italicised), e.g. “Writing Without Bias”, Write Express.

In-text

Heaps (2009) states that bias is . . .

The latest study suggests that community based programmes have been successful (WHO 2002, par. 4).

Nursing Standards (2010, par. 2) defines standards as . . .

References OR Works Cited
Heaps, Stephen. 2009. “Writing Without Bias.” Write Express, 2012. http://www.writeexpress.com/bias.html.
World Health Organisation (WHO). 2002. “Vaccination Programme in East Africa.”
Global Health Programmes. http://www.who.org/positions
/evidence_based.html.
Nursing Standards. 2010. Nursing Management. http://currentnursing.com
/nursing_management/nursing_standards.html.
When you paste in the URL, do not start on a new line. Paste it next to the retrieval date. Then, you can get part of the address to sit on the same line by using a ‘soft return’ (hold down ‘shift’ and tap ‘return’). Try to do this after a double slash OR before a single slash, a punctuation mark, number signs or symbols in the DOI or URL address.

Back to top of page

Journal articles

Journal articles

(a) article in a journal (print)

(b) article in a journal from an online database (e.g. Informit, NCVER, Academic Expanded, LexisNexis Academic, ProQuest).

Most articles from databases include a DOI, which must be included in your reference if given. If no DOI is given, the Database name is cited rather than the internet address.

(c) article from the Internet

Use URL only if there is no DOI or Database available.

See DOI notes above.

In-text

(a) Reid and Sand (1987, 26) argue that . . .

(b) Nutrition is an integral part of effective healing (Leninger 2002, 4-6).

(c) Collins (2010) argues that opposition to . . .

References OR Works Cited
(a)
Reid, Jason, and Rosemary Sand. 1987. “The Wood and the Grove.”Journal of Mythology 9 (1): 23–34.
(b)
Leninger, Sarah M. 2002. “The Role of Nutrition in Wound Healing.”Critical Care Nursing Quarterly 24 (1): 13–21. doi:10.1087/ccnq.114.7. 257.
If no doi.
(b)
Leninger, Sarah M. 2002. “The Role of Nutrition in Wound Healing.”Critical Care Nursing Quarterly 24 (1): 13–21. ProQuest.
(c)
Collins, Randall. 2010. “Geopolitical Conditions of Internationalism, Human Rights, and World Law.” Journal of Globalization Studies 1 (1). http://www.sociostudies.org/journal/articles/140630/.

Back to top of page

Chapter in an edited book

Chapter in an edited book

Write an entry for the author of the chapter. Use the date of publication of the edited book you are using.

The title of the chapter and the book title uses maximal capitalization. Put quotation marks for the title of the chapter and italics for the book title.

In-text

Stories are an essential aspect of therapy (Phillips 1999, 114).

References OR Works Cited
Phillips, Jeremy. 1999. “The Psychodynamic Narrative.” In Healing Stories: Narrative in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, edited by Garry Roberts and Joan Holmes, 107–115. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
After the title of the chapter use the word ‘In’ to introduce the publication that contains the chapter you have used.

Back to top of page

Reading on eReserve (Dixson Library)

Reading on eReserve (Dixson Library)

Treat the reference as you would any other reference of its type.

In-text

Burton (2006, 46-51) argues that . . .

References OR Works Cited

Burton, Lawrence J. 2006. “Critical Thinking.” In An Interactive Approach to Writing Essays and Research Reports in Psychology, 2nd ed., edited by Paul Jones, 45-53. Milton, QLD: John Wiley.

Back to top of page

Secondary reference

Secondary reference

To acknowledge the work of one author that you have found in the work of another. Use the words “cited in” or “quoted in” if direct quote.

Record only the work that you have used in the References / Works Cited.
In-text

Gombrich (1983) argues that both art and nature are needs of the mind (quoted in Norrington 1989, 22).

Name the author of the idea (and date if known), and give author, date and page number of the book where you read it.
References OR Works Cited

Norrington, Frederick G. 1989. New Aesthetics: Life in Art. London: Faber & Faber.

Back to top of page

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

(a)  dictionary (edition)

(b)  encyclopedia (edition)

(c)  online dictionary (edition)

A reference to a well-known, alphabetically-arranged encyclopaedia or dictionary should be incorporated into the text with edition information.

These items are not listed in the reference list.

In-text

(a) A primary verb is one of the three verb types . . . (The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar)

(b) Australia was one of the early adopters of the pop chart ratings (Encyclopaedia of Rock and Pop, 11)

(c) The tone of the poem is affected by the use of intervening words (“Tmesis”, Oxford English Dictionary Online, 12th ed.) that cause the reader . . .

References OR Works Cited

These items are not listed in the reference list.

Back to top of page

Government publications

Government publications

(a) government reports

(b) parliamentary publications

(c) Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)

These may be cited by giving the name of the ministry or agency issuing the publication or report. This is known as the ‘corporate or group author’.

Documents authored by government departments are cited following the jurisdiction they report to. Precede the department name with Australia, Western Australia etc.
In-text

(a) The Department’s report (Department of Defence 2009, p. 3) contains . . .

(b) A report by the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Affairs (2008, par. 25) recommends . . .

(c) In Australia, statistics show that there can be both short and long term risks from the consumption of alcohol (ABS 2006, par. 3).

References OR Works Cited
(a)
Australia. Department of Defence. 2009. The Loss of HMAS Sydney II.
Canberra, ACT: Department of Defence.
(b)
Australia. House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Affairs. 2008. Open for Business: Developing Indigenous Enterprises in Australia. http://www.aph.gov.au
/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/
House_of_Representatives_Committees?url=/atsia/indigenousenterprises/report.htmz.
(c)
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). 2012. Alcohol Consumption in Australia: A Snapshot 2007-08, Cat. no. 4832.0.55.001. http:// www
.abs.gov.au/ausstats.

Back to top of page

Report (other than government)

Report (other than government)

(a) society, group, committee

(b) business

Reports from businesses, groups, committees and societies may provide concrete evidence in your writing.

Use organisation name (corporate or group author) if there is no person as author.

In-text

(a) In this financial report, Diabetes Australia (2010, 5) clarifies the purpose . . .

(b) GM Holden (2010, 9) propose that their future will lie . . .

References OR Works Cited
(a)
Diabetes Australia. 2010. Financial Report for the Year Ended 30 June 2012. http://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/PageFiles/618/DA
%20Financial%20Report%20YE%2030.06.12%20Signed
%20with%20Audit%20Report.pdf.
(b)
GM Holden. 2010. Holden Business Report: Writing Our Own Future.http://www.holden.com.au/resources/documents/
2010_Holden_Business_Report.pdf.

Back to top of page

Paper presented at a conference, seminar

Paper presented at a conference, seminar

(a) unpublished

(b) published (Internet)

A paper in print included in the published proceedings of a meeting may be treated like a chapter in an edited book (see item 4). If published in a journal, it is treated as an article (see item 3).

If published on the Internet use the DOI or URL if DOI is not given.
In-text

(a) Williams and Taji (1990, 73) believe . . .

(b) A combination of disciplinary and educational approaches
is needed to deal with student plagiarism (McGowan 2005, 139).

References OR Works Cited
(a)
Williams, Richard R., and Andrew M. Taji, “Factors Affecting Vitrification — Cytokinin and Shoot Growth.” Paper presented at the International
Congress on Plant Cell and Organ Culture, Amsterdam, March 1990.
(b)
McGowan, Urilch. 2005. “Educational Integrity: A Strategic Approach
to Anti-plagiarism.” Paper presented at the 2nd Educational Integrity Conference, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, May 25-26, 2005.http://www.newcastle.edu.au/conference/apeic/booklet/
APEIC05proceeding.pdf.

Back to top of page

Inserting data

Inserting data

(a) tables

(b) figures

Data can be shown in many ways in your text: e.g. tables, graphic representations, images, maps, charts, drawings, photographs.

Refer to the table or figure in your paragraph, then place your table or figure immediately below the text.

Put an appropriate, descriptive caption or label on all tables and figures.

Tables and figures have separate numbering systems.

Your own data does not require an author reference.
In-text

(a) (In-text) Table 3 summarises the key terminology used in the history subjects . . .(caption above table) Table 3. Terminology used in history (Moore 2011, 162)

(b) (In-text) As shown in Figure 6, daily extremes in temperature in Australia…

(caption below diagram) Fig. 6. Maximum temperatures in Australia 2013 (BOM 2013)

Put a Table number (above) or a Figure number (below) + caption + in-text reference. Italicise Figure/Table number.
References OR Works Cited
(a)
Moore, Tim John. 2011. Critical Thinking and Language. table. London, United Kingdom: Continuum International Publishing Group.
(b)
Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology (BOM). 2013. Daily Maximum Temperature Extremes Graph of Australia. graph. http://www.
bom.gov.au/cgi-bin/climate/extremes/extreme_graphs_annual.cgi.
If you reproduce or adapt outside sources, provide full citation in the reference list, giving information about the type of source after the label/title e.g. table, graph, image, data set, map, photograph.

Back to top of page

Pamphlet/brochure

Pamphlet/brochure

Treat a brochure or a pamphlet as you would a book. However, most pamphlets have no page numbers.

In-text

According to the High Country Urban Biodiversity Project (2012), a large diversity of native wildflowers grows on the New England Tableland.

References OR Works Cited

High Country Urban Biodiversity Project. 2012. Native Plants of Southern New England New South Wales. NSW Environmental Trust: NSW Government.

Back to top of page

Newspaper article

Newspaper article

(a) specified author

i. Print newspaper

ii. Online newspaper

 

(b) unspecified author

The initial article ‘the’ is not included in the paper title in your reference list, and therefore is not italicised.

If no specified author, give the name of the newspaper in place of the author in the References of Works Cited.

In-text

(a) i. Target funding is not being met (Leech 1993, 13).

ii. Leech (1993) suggests that . . .

(b) Debt levels have fallen (Sydney Morning Herald, July 7, 2007).

The Sydney Morning Herald (January 28 1992, 16) featured …

References OR Works Cited
(a) i.
Leech, Garry. 2002. “Call for Research Shake-up.” TheAustralian, August 11: 13.
ii.
Leech, Garry. 2002. “Call for Research Shake-up.” TheAustralian, August 11. http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/2002/08/04
research_shake.html.
(b)
Sydney Morning Herald. (1992). “Computer Industry Blamed,” January 28: 16.

Back to top of page

UNE teaching material

UNE teaching material

(a) topic notes (print)

(b) podcast

(e.g. unit information, topic notes, assessment, presentation/powerpoint slides, podcast of lecture).

Replace ‘audio podcast’ with ‘video webcast’ for appropriate format.

Make sure you indicate the type of material.
In-text

(a) According to Fisher (2011, p. 32), there are two types of ethical concerns facing multinational corporations.

(b) Brown (2010) argues that nationalism is . . .

References OR Works Cited
a)
Fisher, John. 2011. “GSB 751: Business Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability”. topic notes. Armidale, Australia: Graduate School of Business, University of New England.
(b)
Brown, Andrew. 2010, August 15. Nationalism: Lecture 1. audio podcast. In PAIS102: Introduction to Political Ideology. Armidale, Australia: University of New England. http://www.une.edu.au.

Back to top of page

Audio-visual

Audio-visual

(a) film

(b) DVD

(c) CD-ROM

(d) television programs

In text, refer to the title and date of production, as well as the format.

If you are citing a contribution of a particular individual, begin with that person’s name, e.g. Gibson, Mel, perf. Mad Max.

In-text

(a) In The Third Man (1949) . . .

(b) Australia’s Geological History (1986) explored . . .

(c) Fine tuning the vocal folds creates different voice qualities . . . (Reid 2004).

(d) In The Future of Work (1983) . . .

References OR Works Cited
(a)
The Third Man. film.1949. Directed by Carol Reed. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 1999.
(b)
Australia’s Geological History. DVD.1986. Sydney, Outback Films.
(c)
Reid, Nicholas. 2004. Phonetics: An interactive Introduction. CD-ROM. Armidale, NSW: University of New England.
(d)
The Future of Work. television program.1983. Sydney: ABC Television, October 19.

Back to top of page

Personal communication

Personal communication

Information privately obtained e.g. personal conversation, interview, letter, lecture other than UNE lectures or podcasts, email.

Give details of the person, the context and the date clearly in your writing.

In-text

In a lecture, doubts were cast on the statistical methods used (Dr P. Brown, May 3, 2013) Professor M. Collins (August 26, 2013) discussed the issue in an email to all students . . .In a lecture from the University of Melbourne, it was clearly stated that the client’s needs must come first (Dr J.Giddings, May 16, 2009)

References OR Works Cited

These items are not listed in the reference list.

Back to top of page

 

 

True or False: I type the word References or Works Cited on new page/centre/same size text and do not use italics?
True!

 

a, b, c … is used to differentiate between works written in the same year.
Correct!

 

True or False: I use the 3-Em dash (control - alt - minus) followed by a full stop instead of repeating the same author’s name in my References or Works Cited list?
True!

 

The terms ‘Anon.’ or ‘Anonymous’ are not used if you cannot find an author.
Correct!

 

If there is no DOI, use the home page URL.
Correct!

 

True or False: My own data does not require an author or reference?
True!

 

If I reproduce or adapt outside sources, I provide a full citation in the reference list, giving information about the type of source after the label/title e.g. table, graph, image, data set, map, photograph.
Correct!

This image is a person with a speech bubble that says "How did you go with your self-check?"

If you were successful in giving the right answer, then well done!

If you did not give the right answer for some of the questions then you might want to re-read those sections.

Clarifying these points now will make it easier for you to apply them in the future!


Back to top of page

Download a print friendly version of this content.
facebooktwittergoogle_plusredditpinterestlinkedinmailfacebooktwittergoogle_plusredditpinterestlinkedinmail