An alphabetical list of references is placed at the end of your assignment. This list gives the full publication details of each source you cited in your assignment so that your reader can consult the same sources that you have used.
This video outlines the application of an APA Reference list using the 6th edition of the manual.
This page explains:
- Reference list or bibliography?
- Analysis of reference list examples
- Capitalisation styles in reference entries
- Formatting the reference list
- Example reference list
When you write your reference list, you need to analyse the patterns of each reference type. Some basic details that you need to look for are authors/no authors, dates/no dates, titles, editions and publishers, pages, DOIs or /URLs, depending on the type of reference you need.
Journal article (print)
Journal article (online with a DOI)
Website/web page with author information
Minimal (Sentence style) is used for the titles of all reference list information sources except for the titles of journal articles. Capitalise only the first word, the first word after a question mark (?), a colon (:) or em dash (—), and proper nouns that normally require capitalisation (e.g. names of people, cultural groups, places etc.).
Maximal (Headline style) is used only for italicised titles of journals. The first letter of every major word in the journal title should be capitalised—conjunctions, articles and short prepositions are not considered major words. The first word after a colon is always capitalised.
- The reference list goes on a new page at the end of your assignment;
- Head your page with the title: References (upper and lower case letters) and centred. (Do not use all capitals, bold, underline or italics);
- Use the same spacing as your essay for the reference list (1.5 or double spaced);
- Start each reference on a new line without a space between each reference item; and
- Use hanging indent format for all items in the reference list.
Put the heading ‘References’ at the top of a separate page and move to the centre. Double-space the entire reference list.
Harrison, N.P. (1999). Bloom revisited: The flourishing of thinking. Journal of Enquiry into Higher Education, 232, 19-32.
Hicks, D.V. (1991). Norms and nobility: A treatise on education. Savage, Maryland: Rowland & Littlefield.
|Electronic Journal Reference||
Karinsky, S., Black, T., Gobi, P., & Fellows, J. (2005). A new vision for universities. Journal of University Studies, 6, 89-97. doi:10.1188/105256204400900409
|Online Dictionary Reference||
Macmillan Publishers Australia. (2007). The Macquarie dictionary online (4th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.macquarieonline.com.au/dictionary.html
|Web Site Reference||
UNESCO. (2001). World conference on education follow-up strategy. World Conference on Education. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/education/wche/index.html
Put all items in the reference list in strict alphabetical order, but do not include The, An, A as the first letter in a title.
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