APA – in-text

Referencing is a very important academic convention which recognises that academic writing builds on previous research. In your assignments, you are required to refer to the work of others and you must explicitly acknowledge this both in the body of your assignment (in-text reference) and in a list of references at the end of your work. It is important that you follow these rules.

This page explains:

 

Parts of in-text references

Each time you use the work of others in an assignment, you must acknowledge this. In APA referencing, you place an in-text reference in your writing, then detail the location of that information in a reference list at the end of your essay.

 intext

Format: name, (comma – space) year, (comma – space) page number if required (p. with a full stop – space – number)
The term ‘author’ can mean that you use the names of writers OR use the name of the group that serves as the author (e.g. editors, corporations, associations, government agencies, publishers). 
When the publication date is not available, write d. (no date) with full stops after the n and the d and without any spaces between the letters.
When there are no page numbers and you need to state the location of your information, use paragraph numbers e.g. 9 or section titles, e.g. Chapter 3.

 

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Direct quotations

(a) If the direct quote is less than 40 words in the text, enclose it with double quotation marks.

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(b) If the quote is more than 40 words in the text, follow the format below.

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(c) You can make some modifications in direct quotations if you follow these rules:

Making a change Correct convention
Leaving out some words because you may not need all of the words in the middle of the quote Use an ellipsis signal . . . (three full stops with a space before, between, and after)
Changing the capitalisation of a letter Use square brackets [ ] around the letter e.g. [J]
Adding words to the quote (without changing the meaning) Use square brackets [ ] around the added words
Indicating an error in the quote (e.g. spelling) Insert [sic] in square brackets & italics after the error

 

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Paraphrases and summarises

Using your own words to express the ideas or opinions of other writers (i.e. paraphrases or summaries) is recommended because direct quotations should occupy less than 10% of your essay. A summary is a shortened version of the original, whereas a paraphrase is about the same length as the original. Paraphrases and summaries of the work of other writers require in-text references, but no quotation marks are needed.

Strong author example: Long (2007) argues that recast feedback may be the most effective method to correct a second language learner’s spoken errors.

Weak author example: It is argued that recast feedback may be the most effective method to correct a second language learner’s spoken errors (Long, 2007).  

 

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In-text referencing in action

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Do not use quotations incorrectly:

never

 

 

True or False? Each time I use the ideas and/or language from a source in an assignment, I must acknowledge it. In APA referencing, I must place an in-text reference in my writing, and then detail the location of that information in a reference list at the end of my essay.
True!

 

The term 'author' can mean that you use the names of individual writers OR use the name of the group that serves as the author.
Correct!

 

True or False? When the name of the author or group author is not known, I need to cite the title of the work in italics and not use ‘Anon.’ or ‘Anonymous’.
True!

 

I put the author and date before the information (strong author) and the page number in round brackets at the end of a direct quotation.
Correct!

 

I put the author, date and page number before the information (strong author).
Correct!

 

I put the author, date and page number information in round brackets after a direct quotation (weak author).
Correct!

This graphic shows a person with a speech bubble that says "How did you go with your self-check?"If you did well, congratulations!

If you did not answer the majority correctly, then you might want to re-read the information and work through them again.

Sometimes it helps to get some fresh air and approach it with a clear head.

Getting a good understanding of in-text referencing now will really help you in the future!


 

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