APA Referencing Guide

The following provides a comprehensive beginner’s guide to APA Style referencing.

This page explains:

True or False:

APA (6th ed.) requires page or paragraph numbers in in-text references for direct quotations and encourages the same for paraphrases. For specific details, check with the unit co-ordinator in your discipline?

True!
 

Variations in authors

Below are examples of referencing based on variation in authors.

Click to expand:

Single author

Single author

Write the author’s surname only in-text.  

In-text

The idea of progress is much overrated (Addington, 1994).

Addington (1994) states that . . .

References

Addington, H. (1994). Cultural cringe: A study of change. London, England: Routledge.


Type References on new page/centred /same size text/no italics/no bold

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Two authors

Two authors

Cite both surnames every time the reference occurs in text. 
Use ‘and’ between authors, but use an & when in brackets and in References.

In-text

Holper and Torok (2008) claim . . .
Climate change will affect all lives on this planet (Holper & Torok, 2008).

References

Holper, P.N., & Torok, S. (1992). Climate change: What you can do about it at work, at home, at school. Sydney, Australia: Pan Macmillan Australia.

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Three to Five authors

Three to Five authors

Name all authors in your first in-text reference, but use ‘et al.’ after this.
Use ‘and’ between the last two authors in your sentence preceded by a comma. However, if all of the in-text reference is in brackets, use an ‘&’ instead of ‘and’.
Name all authors in the references. Use an ‘&’ preceded by a comma.

In-text

First mention: MacKay, Clarke, Fleming, Collins, and Sue (2006) demonstrate that . . .

OR (MacKay, Clarke, Fleming, Collins, & Sue, 2006)

Subsequent mentions: MacKay et al. (2006) also found that . . .

References

MacKay, I., Clarke, C., Fleming, M., Collins, M., & Sue, J. (2006). Food the focus for our future. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

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Six or more authors

Six or more authors

Cite only the first author’s surname, followed by ‘et al.’ in-text.
For 6-7 authors, record all the authors’ names in the References. Use an ‘&’ preceded by a comma before the last name. 
For 8 or more authors, record the first three authors followed by . . . and the last author.

In-text

Peters et al. (1995) base their study on an economic model.

This study is based on an economic model (Peters et al., 1995).

References

6-7 authors

Peters, C., Suzuki, T., Corrigan, Y.T., Najar, P., Dudley, P., & Thomas, E. (1995). New economies for new times. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press,

8 or more authors

Field, C.B., Barros, V., Stocker, T.F. . . . Midgley, P.M. (Eds.). (2012). Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. IPCC. Retrieved from http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srex/SREX_Full_Report.pdf

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Multiple works by the same author

Multiple works by the same author

Use a, b, c . . . to differentiate between works written in the same year by the same author.
Page or paragraph numbers may not apply to the in-text reference for statements about the whole of a study.

In-text

In her first study, Sheldon (1996) supports the theory, but her two later studies (1999a, 1999b) modify this claim.

References

Sheldon, S. (1996). Language Limits. London, England: Duckworth.
Sheldon, S. (1999a). Morphemic resonance: A new dimension. Discourse Studies, 23, 67–72.
Sheldon, S. (1999b, Spring). Rules and tools. Journal of Semantics43, 23–45.

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Authors with the same surname

Authors with the same surname

In text, where it is necessary to distinguish between authors with the same surname, use the authors’ initials. Place initials after the surname when in brackets, and before the surname when in the sentence.

In-text

co-authors of a work: 
Scollon, Scollon and Jones (2011) argue that . . .

separate works:
A recent report (Jones, R.W., 1991) indicated . . . but D.J. Jones (1993) has refuted the findings.

References

co-authors of a work: 

Scollon, R., Scollon, S.W., & Jones, R.H. (2011). Intercultural communication (3rd ed.). Oxford, England: Wiley Blackwell. Retrieved from http://UNE.eblibcom.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=822409 

separate works:

Jones, D.J. (1993). Review of social needs in the North West region. Lismore, Australia: FACS.Jones, R.W. (1991). Report to the CARE centre. Armidale, Australia: DOCS. 

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Author unknown

Author unknown

(a) use name of the organisation 
(b) use title of work

If no organisation, use the title in double quotation marks (articles, a chapter, web page) OR italics (periodical, book, brochure, report). 

In-text

(a) The NSW Board of Studies (2006) advocates an . . .

(b) Vaccine efficiency is six times more efficient . . . (“New Child Vaccine”, 2001).

References
(a)
NSW Board of Studies (2006). Syllabus development handbook. Sydney, Australia: NSW Board of Studies. Retrieved from http://www.boardofstudies .nsw.edu.au/manuals/pdf_doc/syl_dev_hbook.pdf
 
(b)
New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved from http://news.ninemsn.com.au/health/story_13178.asp

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Citing several sources at once

Citing several sources at once

In text, authors’ names are presented alphabetically and each reference is separated by a semicolon (;).
All authors are represented in the reference list. 

In-text

Policy makers argue that the connection between science and business should not be viewed critically (Branscomb, 1997; Noble, 1993; Stokes, 1997).

References
Branscomb, I. (1997). Investing in innovation. New York, NY: Routledge.
Noble, B. (1993). America by design. New York, NY: Knopf.
Stokes, D. (1997). Pasteur’s quadrant. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
 

When I create a reference list, I type the heading References on a new page/centred/same size text/no italics and not bolded.
Correct!
 

Variations in dates, editions, DOIs and web addresses

Below are examples of referencing based on variation in dates, editions, DOIs and web addresses.

Click to expand:

A work with no publication date

A work with no publication date

‘n.d.’ means ‘no date’. Avoid using works without a date as most authentic academic sources are always dated.

In-text

Shaw (n.d.) finds that . . .

One study (Shaw, n.d.) suggests . . .

References
Shaw, O. (n.d.). Reflective learning. London, England: Faber.

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Edition

Edition

If a source is 2nd or later edition, state the edition after the title inside brackets in this format (xx ed.).

In-text

Writers need to consider . . . (Heffernan, Lincoln, & Atwill, 2001).

References
Heffernan, J.A.W., Lincoln, E. J., & Atwill, J. (2001). Writing, a college handbook (5th ed.). New York, NY: W. W. Norton.

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The DOIs and URLs

The DOIs and URLs

A DOI is a unique set of numbers that provides a permanent link to its location on the Internet. The DOI is located on the first page of the electronic article.
If no DOI, use the home page URL for the electronic journal or book.
For eBooks and journal articles from the UNE server (ezproxy), only the ‘root’ of the URL (host or domain name) is used in the URL.

Either of these formats for the DOI in your References is currently acceptable:

doi:10.1177/1084822305284310 (doi only) OR
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1084822305284310 (direct link URL with a doi embedded)

The letters doi are lower case, followed by a colon and no space.
Remove the hyperlink (or underline) in a web address in the references by right clicking on the hyperlink. There is no full stop at the end of the URL e.g. http://une.edu au
Avoid long strings in the URL (ezproxy) by providing only the root of the URL.
Chalker, S., & Weiner, E. (1998). In The Oxford dictionary of English grammar. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com.ezproxy. une.edu.au /view/10.1093/acref
/9780192800879.001.0001/acref-9780192800879

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The letters doi are lower case, followed by a colon and no space.
Correct!
 
I must remove the hyperlink (or underline) in a web address in the references by right clicking on the hyperlink.
Correct!
 
True or False: Long strings in the URL (ezproxy) must be avoided by providing only the root of the URL?
True!
 

Examples of some common references in academic writing

Below are examples of some common references in academic writing.

Click to expand:

Book

Book

(a) print 
(b) online (URL)
(c) online (DOI)
Use the DOI if available, otherwise use the URL of the electronic book.
See above for more information on the DOI or URL

In-text

(a) Barrett and Roberts (2002) find that the concept . . .

(b) Several levels of consciousness were found (Tart, 1997).

(c) Sawyer (2010) finds that the influence of peers was . .

References
(a)
Barrett, M., & Roberts, L. (2002). Working communication. Milton, Australia: John Wiley & Sons.
(b)
Tart, C.T. (1997). States of consciousness. Retrieved from
http//www. netlibrary.net/
(c) 
Sawyer, A. (2010). Language socialization in multilingual societies [Kindle DX version]. doi:10.1037/1076293722

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Website / web page

Website / web page

(a) author, cite the person who wrote the material.
(b) no author, use the corporation or group.
(c) no group as an author, If no organisation, use the title in double quotation marks (articles, a chapter, web page) OR italics (periodical, book, brochure, report).
No page, use paragraph number (if no paragraph number, use the section title if possible after the author and date).
No date of publication, use n.d.

In-text

(a) Ennis (2013) states that critical thinking is…

(b) The latest study suggests that community based programmes have been successful (World Health Organisation [WHO], 2002).

First citation (World Health Organisation [WHO], 2002).
Later citations (WHO, 2002).

(c) Vaccine efficiency is six times more efficient . . . (“New Child Vaccine”, 2001).

References
(a)
Ennis, R.H. (2009). The nature of critical thinking: Outlines of general critical thinking dispositions and abilities. Retrieved from Criticalthinking.net website: http://www.criticalthinking.net/longdefinition.html
(b)
World Health Organisation (WHO). (2010). Evidence-based public health initiatives. Retrieved from http://www.who.org/positions/ evidence_based.html
(c)
New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved from http://news.ninemsn.com.au/health/story_13178.asp

To paste in the URL or DOI, do not start on a new line. Paste it next to ‘Retrieved from’. Then, you can get part of the address to sit on the same line by using a ‘soft return’ (hold down ‘shift’ and tap ‘return’). Try to do this before most punctuation (except http://).
In (a) and (c), provide the website name in the retrieval statement if you have the information. 

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Journal articles

Journal articles

(a) article in a journal (print)
(b) article in an electronic journal (Internet)
(c) article with the DOI

Italicise the volume number after the title e.g. 7, (volume by itself in italics). If (and only if) the journal is one that restarts the page numbering at 1 for each issue, include the issue number in parentheses after the volume number e.g. 7(3), but do not italicise the issue number.

Use the DOI when citing electronic versions of journal articles (or URL if no DOI).See above for more information on DOI.

In-text

(a) Reid and Sand (1987) comment that . . .

An earlier study (Reid & Sand, 1987) suggests that . . .

(b) Collins (2010) argues that opposition to . . .

The development of the rule of law occurred first within bureaucratic states (Collins, 2010).

(c) Nutrition is an “integral part of effective healing” (Stefanski & Smith, 2006, p. 4).

References
(a) 
Reid, J., & Sand, R. (1987). The wood and the grove. Journal of Mythology9, 23–34.
(b) 
Collins, R. (2010). Geopolitical conditions of internationalism, human rights, and world law. Journal of Globalization Studies, 1. Retrieved from http://www.sociostudies.org/journal/articles/140630
(c) 
Stefanski, L.S., & Smith, K.J. (2006). The role of nutrition intervention in wound healing. Home Health Care Management Practice, 18(4), 293-299. doi:10.1177/1084822305284310

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Chapter in an edited book

Chapter in an edited book

Write an entry for the author of the chapter. Use the date of publication of the edited book where you found the information.

For an electronic version, include either the DOI as with an online book, or a retrieval statement plus the URL as with a website.

In-text

Stories are an essential aspect of therapy (Phillips, 1999).

Phillips (1999) argues that . . .

References
Phillips, J. (1999). The psychodynamic narrative. In G. Roberts & J. Holmes (Eds.), Healing stories: Narrative in psychiatry and psychotherapy (pp. 7–15). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

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Reading on eReserve (Dixson Library)

Reading on eReserve (Dixson Library)

Treat the reference as you would any other reference of its type.

In-text

Keesing (1991) argues that culture “implies a substantial degree of…” (p. 44).

References
Keesing, R. M. (1991). “Culture” and Asian studies. Asian Studies Review, 15(2), 43–50.

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Secondary reference

Secondary reference

To acknowledge the work of one author that you have found in the work of another. 

In-text

Gombrich (1983) argues that both art and nature are needs of the mind (as cited in Norrington, 1989, p. 22).

Name the author of the idea (and date if known), and give author, date and page number of the source where you read it.
References
Norrington, F.G. (1989). New aesthetics: Life in art. London, UK: Faber & Faber.
 
Record only the work that you have actually seen in the References list.

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Government publications

Government publications

(a) government reports
(b) parliamentary publications
(c) Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)

These may be cited by giving the name of the ministry or agency issuing the publication or report. This is known as the ‘corporate or group author’.
When the author and publisher are the same (e.g. with a corporate author), replace the publisher with the word ‘author’.

In-text

(a) The Department’s report (Department of Defence, 2009) contains . . .

(b) A report by the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Affairs (2008) recommends . . .

(c) In Australia, statistics show that there can be both short and long term risks from the consumption of alcohol (ABS, 2006).

References
(a) 
Department of Defence. (2009). The loss of HMAS Sydney II.
Canberra, Australia: Author.
(b) 
House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Affairs. (2008). Open for business: Developing indigenous enterprises in Australia. Canberra, Australia: Parliament of Australia. Retrieved from http://www.aph.gov.au/house/committee/atsia
/indigenousenterprises/report.htm
(c) 
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). (2006). Alcohol consumption in Australia: A snapshot, 2004-05 (Cat. no. 4832.0.55.001). Retrieved from http://www. abs.gov.au/ausstats

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Report

Report (other than government)

(a) society, group, committee
(b) business

Reports from businesses, groups, committees and societies may provide concrete evidence in your writing.
Use organisation name (corporate or group author) if there is no person as author.

In-text

(a) In this financial report, Diabetes Australia (2010) clarifies the purpose . . .

(b) GM Holden (2010) proposes that the future will lie . . .

References
(a) 
Diabetes Australia. (2010). Financial report for the year ended 30 June 2012. Retrieved from http://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/PageFiles/618/DA
%20Financial%20Report%20YE%2030.06.12%20Signed%20with%20Audit%20Report.pdf
(b) 
GM Holden. (2010). Holden business report: Writing our own future. Retrieved from http://www.holden.com.au/resources/documents/2010_Holden_Business_Report.pdf

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Paper presented at a conference / seminar

Paper presented at a conference / seminar

(a) unpublished
(b) published

In-text

(a) Williams and Taji (1990) believe . . .

(b) A combination of disciplinary and educational approaches is needed to deal    with student plagiarism (McGowan, 2005).

References
(a) 
Williams, R.R., & Taji, A.M. (1990, June). Factors affecting vitrification — cytokinin and shoot growth. Paper presented at the International Congress on Plant Cell and Organ Culture, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
(b) 
McGowan, U. (2005, December). Educational integrity: A strategic approach to anti plagiarism. In Proceedings of the 2nd Educational Integrity Conference. Newcastle, Australia: University of Newcastle. Retrieved from http://www
.newcastle.edu.au/conference/apeic/booklet/APEIC05proceeding.pdf

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Dictionaries / Encyclopedias

Dictionaries / Encyclopedias

(a)  dictionary (author or editor) 
(b)  encyclopedia (author)
(c)  dictionary (no author) 

Page or paragraph numbers may not apply to the in-text reference.
If there is no author, place the title, a word or first few words in the author position in double quotation marks.
Use the word “In” before the title. 
Also see above information on the DOI or URL

In-text

(a) A primary verb is one of the three verb types (Chaulker & Weiner, 1998)

(b) AC/DC, formed in 1973, became one of Australia’s best known rock groups (McFarlane, 1999)

(c) Tmesis involves separating syllables of a word with other intervening words, for example, fan-damn-tastic (“Tmesis”, 2013).

References
(a)
Chalker, S., & Weiner, E. (1998). In The Oxford dictionary of English grammar. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com
(b)
McFarlane, I. (1999). In Encyclopedia of Australian rock and pop. St Leonards, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
(c)
Tmesis. (2013). In Oxford English dictionary online. Retrieved from http://www.oed.com

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Pamphlet

Pamphlet

Treat a brochure or a pamphlet as you would a book. However, most pamphlets have no page numbers

In-text

According to the High Country Urban Biodiversity Project (2012) a large diversity of native wildflowers grows on the New England Tableland.

References
High Country Urban Biodiversity Project. (2012). Native plants of southern New England, New South Wales. NSW Government Environmental Trust.

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Inserting data (Tables & Figures)

Inserting data (Tables & Figures)

Data can be shown in many ways in your text: e.g. tables, graphic representations, images, maps, charts, drawings, photographs.
Refer to the table or figure in your paragraph, then place your table or figure immediately below the text with the in-text reference written as a ‘Note.’ (in italics)
Tables and figures have separate numbering systems.
Italicise Figure number but not Table number.
Your own/personal data does not require an author reference. 

In-text

As shown in Figure 6, daily extremes in temperature in Australia …(in your writing)

The in-text citation is in the ‘Note.’ below the figure or table.

Figure 6. Maximum Temperatures in Australia 2013 (label)

Note. Reprinted from Daily maximum temperature extremes graph of Australia, by Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology (BOM), 2013, retrieved from http://www.bom.gov.au/cgi-bin/climate/extremes/extreme_graphs_annual.cgi

Put a Table number (above) or a Figure number (below) + caption + in-text reference.
References
Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology (BOM). (2013). Daily maximum temperature extremes graph of Australia [Graph]. Retrieved from http://www.bom.gov.au/cgi-bin/climate/extremes/extreme_graphs_annual.cgi
If you reprint or adapt outside sources, provide full citation in the reference list, giving information about the type of source in square brackets next to the title e.g. [Table], [Graph], [Image], [Data set], [Map].

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Newspaper article

Newpaper article

(a) specified author
i. Print newspaper
ii. Online newspaper

(b) unspecified author

In-text

(a) Target funding is not being met (Leech, 2002).

Leech (2002) suggests that . . .

(b) Debt levels have fallen (“Computer Industry Blamed”, 1997) . . .

References

(a)i.

Leech, G. (2002, September 19). Call for research shake-up. The Australian, p. 13.

(a) ii.

Leech, G. (2002, September 19). Call for research shake-up. The Australian. Retrieved from: http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au

b)

Computer industry blamed. (1997, July 7). The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 3.

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Audio-visual

Audio-visual

(a) film
(b) DVD
(c) CD-ROM
(d) television programs
(e) TV show episode

In text, refer to the title and date of production.
Description of form/medium of recording in References are placed in square brackets (not italics) and could include: 
[Motion picture] [DVD] [CD ROM] [Audio podcast] [Television series episode]

In-text

(a) In The Third Man (Korda & Wells, 1949) . . .

(b) Australia’s Geological History (Clarke, 1986) explores . . .

(c) Fine tuning the vocal folds creates different voice qualities . . . (Reid, 2004).

(d) In The Future of Work (2010) . . .

(e) The dialogue demonstrates the tension in the city’s projects (Simon & Johnson, 2002).

References
(a) 
Korda, A. (Producer), & Wells, O. (Director). (1949). The third man [Motion picture]. Great Britain: RKO Films.
(b) 
Clarke, C. (Producer). (1986). Australia’s geological history [DVD]. Sydney, Australia: Outback Films.
(c) 
Reid, N. (Producer). (2004). Phonetics: An interactive introduction [CD-ROM]. Armidale, Australia: University of New England.
(d) 
Productivity Association (Producer). (2010, November 26). The future of work [Television broadcast]. Sydney, Australia: ABC Television.
(e) 
Simon, D. (Writer), & Johnson, C. (Director). (2002). The detail [Television series episode]. In D. Simon & E. Burns (Executive producers), The wire. New York, NY: HBO Time Warner.

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UNE teaching material

UNE teaching material

(a) topic notes
(b) podcast

(e.g. unit information, topic notes, assessment, presentation / powerpoint slides, podcast of lecture)
Replace ‘audio podcast’ with ‘video webcast’ for appropriate format. 
Make sure you indicate the type of material in square brackets.

In-text

(a) According to Fisher (2011), there are two types of ethical concerns facing multinational corporations.

(b) A. Brown (2010) argues that nationalism is . . .

References
(a)
Fisher, J. (2011). GSB 751: Business ethics, corporate social responsibility and sustainability [Topic notes]. Armidale, Australia: University of New England, Graduate School of Business.
(b)
Brown, A. (Producer). (2010, August 15). Nationalism: Lecture 1. [Audio podcast]. In PAIS102: Introduction to Political Ideology. Armidale, Australia: University of New England. Retrieved from http://www.une.edu.au

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Personal communication

Personal communication

Information privately obtained e.g. personal conversation, interview, letter, lecture, email.A live lecture is treated as personal communication, but you must reference a podcast of a lecture.

In-text

Doubts were cast on the statistical methods used (P. Darnell, personal communication, May 3, 2014).

In an email communication on 3 May 2014, Peter Darnell explained . . .

References
Personal communications are not recorded in your reference list.

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Single author
When I paste in a URL or doi into my reference list, I do not start on a new line. I must paste it next to ‘Retrieved from’.
Correct!
 
When citing (in-text) another author, I must name the author of the idea (and date if known), and give author, date, and page number of the source where I read it.
Correct!
 
I am to record only the work that I have actually seen in the reference list.
Correct!
 
True or False: Personal communications are not recorded in the reference list?
True!
 
Quoting authors In-text Emerging electronic media

 
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