This page explains:
- Variations in authors
- Variations in dates, editions, DOIs and web addresses
- Examples of some common references in academic writing
APA (6th ed.) requires page or paragraph numbers in in-text references for direct quotations and encourages the same for paraphrases. However, most science disciplines do not require page or paragraph numbers except for direct quotations. For specific details, check with the unit co-ordinator in your discipline?
Below are examples of referencing based on variation in authors.
Click to expand:Single author
Write the author’s surname only in-text.
The idea of progress is much overrated (Addington, 1994).
Addington (1994) states that . . .
Addington, H. (1994). Cultural cringe: A study of change. London, England: Routledge.
Cite both surnames every time the reference occurs in text.
Use ‘and’ between authors, but use an & when in brackets and in References.
Holper and Torok (2008) claim . . .
Climate change will affect all lives on this planet (Holper & Torok, 2008).
Holper, P.N., & Torok, S. (1992). Climate change: What you can do about it at work, at home, at school. Sydney, Australia: Pan Macmillan Australia.
Three to Five authors
Name all authors in your first in-text reference, but use ‘et al.’ after this.
Use ‘and’ between the last two authors in your sentence preceded by a comma. However, if all of the in-text reference is in brackets, use an ‘&’ instead of ‘and’.
Name all authors in the references. Use an ‘&’ preceded by a comma.
First mention: MacKay, Clarke, Fleming, Collins, and Sue (2006) demonstrate that . . .
OR (MacKay, Clarke, Fleming, Collins, & Sue, 2006)
Subsequent mentions: MacKay et al. (2006) also found that . . .
MacKay, I., Clarke, C., Fleming, M., Collins, M., & Sue, J. (2006). Food the focus for our future. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Six or more authors
Cite only the first author’s surname, followed by ‘et al.’ in-text.
For 6-7 authors, record all the authors’ names in the References. Use an ‘&’ preceded by a comma before the last name.
For 8 or more authors, record the first three authors followed by . . . and the last author.
Peters et al. (1995) base their study on an economic model.
This study is based on an economic model (Peters et al., 1995).
Peters, C., Suzuki, T., Corrigan, Y.T., Najar, P., Dudley, P., & Thomas, E. (1995). New economies for new times. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press,
8 or more authors
Field, C.B., Barros, V., Stocker, T.F. . . . Midgley, P.M. (Eds.). (2012). Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. IPCC. Retrieved from http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srex/SREX_Full_Report.pdf
Multiple works by the same author
Use a, b, c . . . to differentiate between works written in the same year by the same author.
Page or paragraph numbers may not apply to the in-text reference for statements about the whole of a study.
In her first study, Sheldon (1996) supports the theory, but her two later studies (1999a, 1999b) modify this claim.
Sheldon, S. (1996). Language Limits. London, England: Duckworth.
Sheldon, S. (1999a). Morphemic resonance: A new dimension. Discourse Studies, 23, 67–72.
Sheldon, S. (1999b, Spring). Rules and tools. Journal of Semantics, 43, 23–45.
Authors with the same surname
In text, where it is necessary to distinguish between authors with the same surname, use the authors’ initials. Place initials after the surname when in brackets, and before the surname when in the sentence.
co-authors of a work:
Scollon, Scollon and Jones (2011) argue that . . .
A recent report (Jones, R.W., 1991) indicated . . . but D.J. Jones (1993) has refuted the findings.
co-authors of a work:
Scollon, R., Scollon, S.W., & Jones, R.H. (2011). Intercultural communication (3rd ed.). Oxford, England: Wiley Blackwell. Retrieved from http://UNE.eblibcom.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=822409
Jones, D.J. (1993). Review of social needs in the North West region. Lismore, Australia: FACS.Jones, R.W. (1991). Report to the CARE centre. Armidale, Australia: DOCS.
(a) use name of the organisation
(b) use title of work
If no organisation, use the title in double quotation marks (articles, a chapter, web page) OR italics (periodical, book, brochure, report).
(a) The NSW Board of Studies (2006) advocates an . . .
(b) Vaccine efficiency is six times more efficient . . . (“New Child Vaccine”, 2001).
Citing several sources at once
In text, authors’ names are presented alphabetically and each reference is separated by a semicolon (;).
All authors are represented in the reference list.
Policy makers argue that the connection between science and business should not be viewed critically (Branscomb, 1997; Noble, 1993; Stokes, 1997).
Below are examples of referencing based on variation in dates, editions, DOIs and web addresses.
Click to expand:A work with no publication date
A work with no publication date
‘n.d.’ means ‘no date’. Avoid using works without a date as most authentic academic sources are always dated.
Shaw (n.d.) finds that . . .
One study (Shaw, n.d.) suggests . . .
If a source is 2nd or later edition, state the edition after the title inside brackets in this format (xx ed.).
Writers need to consider . . . (Heffernan, Lincoln, & Atwill, 2001).
The DOIs and URLs
A DOI is a unique set of numbers that provides a permanent link to its location on the Internet. The DOI is located on the first page of the electronic article.
If no DOI, use the home page URL for the electronic journal or book.
For eBooks and journal articles from the UNE server (ezproxy), only the ‘root’ of the URL (host or domain name) is used in the URL.
doi:10.1177/1084822305284310 (doi only) OR
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1084822305284310 (direct link URL with a doi embedded)
Remove the hyperlink (or underline) in a web address in the references by right clicking on the hyperlink. There is no full stop at the end of the URL e.g. http://une.edu au
Avoid long strings in the URL (ezproxy) by providing only the root of the URL.
Below are examples of some common references in academic writing.
Click to expand:Book
(b) online (URL)
(c) online (DOI)
Use the DOI if available, otherwise use the URL of the electronic book.
See above for more information on the DOI or URL
(a) Barrett and Roberts (2002) find that the concept . . .
(b) Several levels of consciousness were found (Tart, 1997).
(c) Sawyer (2010) finds that the influence of peers was . .
Website / web page
(a) author, cite the person who wrote the material.
(b) no author, use the corporation or group.
(c) no group as an author, If no organisation, use the title in double quotation marks (articles, a chapter, web page) OR italics (periodical, book, brochure, report).
No page, use paragraph number (if no paragraph number, use the section title if possible after the author and date).
No date of publication, use n.d.
(a) Ennis (2013) states that critical thinking is…
(b) The latest study suggests that community based programmes have been successful (World Health Organization [WHO], 2002).
Later citations (WHO, 2002).
(c) Vaccine efficiency is six times more efficient . . . (“New Child Vaccine”, 2001).
(a) article in a journal (print)
(b) article in an electronic journal (Internet)
(c) article with the DOI
Italicise the volume number after the title e.g. 7, (volume by itself in italics). If (and only if) the journal is one that restarts the page numbering at 1 for each issue, include the issue number in parentheses after the volume number e.g. 7(3), but do not italicise the issue number.
Use the DOI when citing electronic versions of journal articles (or URL if no DOI).See above for more information on DOI.
(a) Reid and Sand (1987) comment that . . .
An earlier study (Reid & Sand, 1987) suggests that . . .
(b) Collins (2010) argues that opposition to . . .
The development of the rule of law occurred first within bureaucratic states (Collins, 2010).
(c) Nutrition is an “integral part of effective healing” (Stefanski & Smith, 2006, p. 4).
Chapter in an edited book
Write an entry for the author of the chapter. Use the date of publication of the edited book where you found the information.
For an electronic version, include either the DOI as with an online book, or a retrieval statement plus the URL as with a website.
Stories are an essential aspect of therapy (Phillips, 1999).
Phillips (1999) argues that . . .
Reading on eReserve (Dixson Library)
Treat the reference as you would any other reference of its type.
Keesing (1991) argues that culture “implies a substantial degree of…” (p. 44).
To acknowledge the work of one author that you have found in the work of another.
Gombrich (1983) argues that both art and nature are needs of the mind (as cited in Norrington, 1989, p. 22).
(a) government reports
(b) parliamentary publications
(c) Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)
These may be cited by giving the name of the ministry or agency issuing the publication or report. This is known as the ‘corporate or group author’.
When the author and publisher are the same (e.g. with a corporate author), replace the publisher with the word ‘author’.
(a) The Department’s report (Department of Defence, 2009) contains . . .
(b) A report by the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Affairs (2008) recommends . . .
(c) In Australia, statistics show that there can be both short and long term risks from the consumption of alcohol (ABS, 2006).
Canberra, Australia: Author.
Report (other than government)
(a) society, group, committee
Reports from businesses, groups, committees and societies may provide concrete evidence in your writing.
Use organisation name (corporate or group author) if there is no person as author.
(a) In this financial report, Diabetes Australia (2010) clarifies the purpose . . .
(b) GM Holden (2010) proposes that the future will lie . . .
Paper presented at a conference / seminar
(a) Williams and Taji (1990) believe . . .
(b) A combination of disciplinary and educational approaches is needed to deal with student plagiarism (McGowan, 2005).
Dictionaries / Encyclopedias
(a) dictionary (author or editor)
(b) encyclopedia (author)
(c) dictionary (no author)
Page or paragraph numbers may not apply to the in-text reference.
If there is no author, place the title, a word or first few words in the author position in double quotation marks.
Use the word “In” before the title.
Also see above information on the DOI or URL
(a) A primary verb is one of the three verb types (Chaulker & Weiner, 1998)
(b) AC/DC, formed in 1973, became one of Australia’s best known rock groups (McFarlane, 1999)
(c) Tmesis involves separating syllables of a word with other intervening words, for example, fan-damn-tastic (“Tmesis”, 2013).
Treat a brochure or a pamphlet as you would a book. However, most pamphlets have no page numbers
According to the High Country Urban Biodiversity Project (2012) a large diversity of native wildflowers grows on the New England Tableland.
Inserting data (Tables & Figures)
Data can be shown in many ways in your text: e.g. tables, graphic representations, images, maps, charts, drawings, photographs.
Refer to the table or figure in your paragraph, then place your table or figure immediately below the text with the in-text reference written as a ‘Note.’ (in italics)
Tables and figures have separate numbering systems.
Italicise Figure number but not Table number.
Your own/personal data does not require an author reference.
As shown in Figure 6, daily extremes in temperature in Australia …(in your writing)
Figure 6. Maximum Temperatures in Australia 2013 (label)
Note. Reprinted from Daily maximum temperature extremes graph of Australia, by Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology (BOM), 2013, retrieved from http://www.bom.gov.au/cgi-bin/climate/extremes/extreme_graphs_annual.cgi
(a) specified author
i. Print newspaper
ii. Online newspaper
(b) unspecified author
(a) Target funding is not being met (Leech, 2002).
Leech (2002) suggests that . . .
(b) Debt levels have fallen (“Computer Industry Blamed”, 1997) . . .
Leech, G. (2002, September 19). Call for research shake-up. The Australian, p. 13.
Leech, G. (2002, September 19). Call for research shake-up. The Australian. Retrieved from: http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au
Computer industry blamed. (1997, July 7). The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 3.
(d) television programs
(e) TV show episode
In text, refer to the title and date of production.
Description of form/medium of recording in References are placed in square brackets (not italics) and could include:
[Motion picture] [DVD] [CD ROM] [Audio podcast] [Television series episode]
(a) In The Third Man (Korda & Wells, 1949) . . .
(b) Australia’s Geological History (Clarke, 1986) explores . . .
(c) Fine tuning the vocal folds creates different voice qualities . . . (Reid, 2004).
(d) In The Future of Work (2010) . . .
(e) The dialogue demonstrates the tension in the city’s projects (Simon & Johnson, 2002).
UNE teaching material
(a) topic notes
(e.g. unit information, topic notes, assessment, presentation / powerpoint slides, podcast of lecture)
Replace ‘audio podcast’ with ‘video webcast’ for appropriate format.
Make sure you indicate the type of material in square brackets.
(a) According to Fisher (2011), there are two types of ethical concerns facing multinational corporations.
(b) A. Brown (2010) argues that nationalism is . . .
Information privately obtained e.g. personal conversation, interview, letter, lecture, email.A live lecture is treated as personal communication, but you must reference a podcast of a lecture.
Doubts were cast on the statistical methods used (P. Darnell, personal communication, May 3, 2014).
In an email communication on 3 May 2014, Peter Darnell explained . . .