This page explains:
- Variations in authors, dates, editions, DOIs and web addresses
- Examples of some common references in academic writing
Click to expandSingle authors
Write the author’s surname only in-text. Initials are recorded in the References.
The idea of progress is much overrated (Addington 1994, pp. 32–3).
Addington (1994, pp. 32–3) states that …
Addington, H 1994, Cultural cringe: a study of change, Routledge, London.
Two or three authors
Use ‘and’ between authors in your sentence, but an ‘&’ (ampersand) when in brackets. Use an ‘&’ in the References.
King, Hunt and Lee (1992, p. 23) claim …
Climate change remains controversial (King, Hunt & Lee 1992, p. 23).
King, T, Hunt, E & Lee, LJ 1992, Weather matters, Harvard University Press, Boston.
Three or more authors
In-text, cite only the first author’s surname, followed by ‘et al.’ (not in italics). Record all the authors’ names in the References using an ‘&’ before the last name.
Peters et al. (1995) base their study on the economic model.
This study is based on an economic model (Peters et al. 1995).
Peters, C, Suzuki, T, Corrigan, YT, Najar, P & Thomas, E 1995, New economies for new times, University of Chicago Press.
Citing several sources at once
In text, authors’ names are presented alphabetically and each reference is separated by a semicolon (;).
Write a separate reference item for each author in the list.
Policy makers argue that the connection between science and business should not be viewed critically (Branscomb 1997; Noble 1993; Stokes 1997).
Branscomb, I 1997, Investing in innovation, Routledge, New York.
Noble, B 1993, America by design, Knopf, New York.
Stokes, D 1997, Pasteur’s quadrant, Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Multiple works by the same author
Use a, b, c … to differentiate between works written in the same year by the same author.
In her first study, Sheldon (1996) supports the theory, but her two later studies (1999a; 1999b) modify this claim.
Sheldon, S 1996, Language limits, Duckworth, London.
Sheldon, S 1999a, ‘Morphemic resonance: a new dimension’, Discourse Studies, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 67–72.
Sheldon, S 1999b, ‘Rules and tools’, Journal of Semantics, vol. 43, Spring, pp. 23–45.
Authors with the same surname
(a) co-authors of a work
(b) separate works
In text, where it is necessary to distinguish between authors with the same surname, use the authors’ initials. Place initials after the surname when in brackets, and before the surname when in the sentence.
(a) Scollon and Scollon (2001) argue that …
(b) A recent report (Jones, RW 1991) indicated … but DJ Jones (1993) has refuted the findings.
Scollon, R & Scollon, SW 2001, Intercultural communication, 2nd edn, Blackwell, Oxford.
Jones, DJ 1993, Review of social needs in the North West region, FACS, Lismore, NSW.Jones, RW 1991, Report to the CARE centre, DOCS, Armidale, NSW.
Cite the name of the group or organisation that produced the work. If none, then use the title of the work in italics and sentence case (use capitals only for first word and proper nouns).
The NSW Board of Studies (2006, p. 35) advocates an inclusive approach in syllabus design.
Reducing friction is essential (Pressure care 2000, p. 3).
NSW Board of Studies 2006, Syllabus development handbook, NSW Board of Studies, Sydney, viewed 18 September 2010,
Pressure care 2000, New Health Press, Perth.
If a source is 2nd or later edition, state the edition (xx edn) after the title – separate by a comma, do not italicise, use lower case, no full stop after abbreviation.
Writers need to consider … (Heffernan, Lincoln & Atwill 2001, p. 218).
Heffernan, JAW, Lincoln, EJ & Atwill, J 2001, Writing, a college handbook, 5th edn, W. W. Norton, New York.
The DOI System OR URL
A DOI is a unique set of numbers that provides a permanent link to the document’s location on the Internet. The DOI is usually on the first page of the electronic article.
For eBooks and journal articles from the UNE server (ezproxy), only the ‘root’ of the URL (host or domain name) is used in the URL.
If no DOI, then use the URL in angle brackets followed by a full stop
If you need to use a URL, enclose it in angle brackets and place a full stop after the angle bracket.
Avoid long strings in the URL by providing only the root of the URL e.g.
Chalker, S & Weiner, E 1998, In The Oxford dictionary of English grammar, viewed 27 April 2013,
Examples of some common references in academic writing
Click to expand:Book
If you use a URL, give the date of publication and then the date viewed before the URL.
(a) Baker, Barrett and Roberts (2002, p. 4) find that the concept …
(b) Several levels of consciousness were found … (Tart 1997, p. 37)
(b) Sawyer (2010, p. 24) argues that linguistic constraints …
Baker, E, Barrett, M & Roberts, L 2002, Working communication, John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.
Tart, CT 1997, States of consciousness, viewed 3 July 2011,
Sawyer, A 2010, Language socialization in multilingual societies [Kindle DX version]. DOI 10.1037/1076293722.
Website / Web page
(a) author, cite the person who wrote the material.
(b) no person as author, use the corporation or group.
(c) no group /corporation as author, start with the title of the article. The title of the work is written in sentence case (capitals only for first word and proper nouns).
If there is no page, use paragraph number (if no paragraph number, use the section title if possible after the author and date).
If there is no date of publication, use n.d.
(a) Heaps (2009, para. 3) states that bias is …
(b) The latest study suggests that community based programmes have been successful (World Health Organisation [WHO] 2010, para. 11).
(c) Mobile phone generations (2010, para. 7) lists a number of stages in …
Heaps, S 2009, Writing without bias, viewed 7 August 2010,
World Health Organisation 2010, Evidence based public health initiatives.World Health Organisation, viewed 23 December 2010,
Mobile phone generations 2010, viewed 2 June 2012,
(a) article in a journal (print)
(b) article in an electronic journal (Internet)
(c) article with a DOI
List all authors in the reference list.
If no author can be found, put the journal title (in italics) in the author position.
Give vol. numbers and issue no. OR issue only if volume is missing. If no volume or issue, give month or quarter.
(a) Reid and Sand (1987, p. 26) argue that …
An earlier study (Reid & Sand 1987) suggests that …
(b) Collins (2010) argues that opposition to …
The development of the rule of law occurred first within bureaucratic states (Collins 2010).
(c) Nutrition is an integral part of effective healing (Leninger 2002, p. 4).
Reid, J & Sand, R 1987, ‘The wood and the grove’, Journal of Mythology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 23–34.
Collins, R 2010, ‘Geopolitical conditions of internationalism, human rights, and world law’, Journal of Globalization Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, viewed 15 October 2012,
Leninger, SM 2002, ‘The role of nutrition in wound healing’, Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 13–21, DOI 10.1037/0278-6184.108.40.206.
Chapter in an edited book
Write an entry for the author of the chapter. Use the date of publication of the edited book where you found the information.
Stories are an essential aspect of therapy (Phillips 1999, p. 14).
Phillips (1999, p. 14) argues that …
Phillips, J 1999, ‘The psychodynamic narrative’, in G Roberts & J Holmes (eds), Healing stories: narrative in psychiatry and psychotherapy, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 7–15.
Reading on eReserve (Dixson Library)
Treat the reference as you would any other reference of its type.
Keesing (1991) defines culture as ….
Keesing, RM 1991, ‘Culture and Asian studies’. Asian Studies Review, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 43-50.
To acknowledge the work of one author that you have found in the work of another.
Gombrich (cited in Norrington 1989, p. 22) argues that both art and nature are needs of the mind.
Norrington, FG 1989, New aesthetics: life in art, Faber & Faber, London.
(a) government reports
(b) parliamentary publications
(c) Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)
These may be cited by giving the name of the ministry or agency issuing the publication or report.
a) The Department’s report (Department of Defence 2009) contained …
(b) A report by the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Affairs (2008) recommends…
(c) In Australia, statistics show that there can be both short and long term risks from the consumption of alcohol (ABS 2006).
Department of Defence 2009, The loss of HMAS Sydney II,
Department of Defence, Canberra.
House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Affairs 2008, Open for business: developing Indigenous enterprises
in Australia, Parliament of Australia, Canberra, viewed 8 May 2009,
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006, Alcohol consumption in Australia: a snapshot 2004-05,
cat. no. 4832.0.55.001, ABS, Canberra, viewed 16 March 2008,
Report (other than government)
(a) society, group, committee
Reports from businesses, groups, committees and societies may provide concrete evidence in your writing.
Use organisation name (corporate or group author) if there is no person as author.
(a) In this financial report, Diabetes Australia (2010, p. 5) clarifies the purpose …
(b) GM Holden (2010, p. 9) propose that their future will lie …
Diabetes Australia 2010, Financial report for the year ended 30 June 2012, viewed 25 February 2013,
GM Holden 2010, Holden business report: writing our own future, viewed 2 March 2013,
Paper presented at a conference, seminar, workshop
a) Williams and Taji (1990, p. 14) believe …
(b) A combination of disciplinary and educational approaches is needed to deal with student plagiarism (McGowan 2005, p. 139).
Williams, RR & Taji, AM 1990 June, ‘Factors affecting vitrification—cytokinin and shoot growth’, paper presented at the International Congress on Plant Cell and Organ Culture, Amsterdam, 24-25 June.
McGowan, U 2005, ‘Educational integrity: a strategic approach to anti-plagiarism’,
Proceedings of the second Educational Integrity Conference,
University of Newcastle, pp. 130-9, viewed 30 January 2009,
Dictionary / Encyclopaedia
(a) dictionary (author)
(b) encyclopedia (author)
(c) dictionary (no author)
If the dictionary or encyclopedia has an author, then treat as a book or web site in the References.
If there is no author provided, give the necessary information in-text and do not write an entry in the References.
(a) A primary verb is one of the three verb types … (Chaulker & Weiner 2009, para. 7).
(b) Australia was one of the early adopters of the pop chart ratings (Williams 2009).
(c) The tone of the poem is affected by the use of intervening words (Oxford English dictionary online, 12th edn, n.d.) that cause the reader…
Chaulker, S & Weiner, E 2009, The Oxford dictionary of English grammar, viewed 27 April 2010,
Williams, J (ed.) 2009, Encyclopaedia of Australian rock and pop, Methuen, Sydney.
No reference entry required in References.
Data can be shown in many ways in your text: e.g. tables, graphic representations, images, maps, charts, drawings, photographs.
Refer to the table or figure in your paragraph, then place your table or figure immediately below the text.
Tables and figures have separate numbering systems.
(a) (In-text) Table 3 summarises the key terminology used in the history subjects (caption above table) Table 3. Terminology used in history (Moore 2011, p. 162)
(In-text) As shown in Figure 6, daily extremes in temperature in Australia . . .(caption below diagram) Figure 6. Maximum temperatures in Australia 2013 (BOM 2013)
Moore, TJ 2011, Critical thinking and language table, Continuum International Publishing Group, London.
Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) 2013, Daily maximum temperature extremes graph of Australia [graph],
Newspaper or magazine article
(a) specified author
i. print newspaper
ii. online newspaper
(b) unspecified author
If there is no author evident, then provide all the details in the in-text reference (Newspaper, date, year, page), and do NOT put an entry in the reference list.
If no page number, use a section title.
(a) Target funding is not being met (Leech 2002, p. 13).
Leech (2002, p. 13) suggests that …
(b) Debt levels have fallen (Economist 17 April 1997, editorial) …
Leech, G 2002, ‘Call for research shake-up’, The Australian, 19 September, p. 13.
Leech, G 2002, ‘Call for research shake-up’, The Australian, 19 September, viewed 18 August 2008,
(b) i & ii
No reference entry required in References.
(d) television programs
(e) TV show episode
In text, refer to the title and date of production.
Any special credits (e.g. directed by, starring) and other information that might be useful can be noted at the end of the citation.
(a) In The third man (1949), …
(b) Australia’s geological history (1986) explored …
(c) Fine tuning the vocal folds creates different voice qualities … (Reid 2004).
(d) In The future of work (2010) …
(e) The dialogue demonstrates the tension in the city’s projects (‘The detail’ 2002) …
The third man 1949, motion picture, RKO Films, Great Britain, directed by Carol Reed and starring Joseph Cotten, Alida Valli, Orson Welles and Trevor Howard.
Australia’s geological history 1986, DVD, Outback Films, Sydney.
Reid, N 2004, Phonetics: an interactive introduction, CD-ROM, University of New England, Armidale, NSW.
The future of work 2010, television program, ABC Television, Sydney, November 26.
‘The detail’ 2002, television series episode, The wire, HBO Time Warner, New York.
UNE teaching material
(e.g. unit Information, topic notes, assessment, presentation slides, podcast of lecture).
Replace ‘audio podcast’ with ‘video webcast’ for appropriate format.
According to Fisher (2011, p. 32), there are two types of ethical concerns facing multinational corporations.
Bradfield (2010) argues that conservation of …
Fisher, J 2011, GSB 751: Business ethics, corporate social responsibility and sustainability, topic notes, University of New England, Graduate School of Business, Armidale, NSW.
Bradfield, JD 2010, 17 April, Kangaroo: an extraordinary marsupial, lecture, University of New England, School of Environmental and Rural Sciences, Armidale, NSW.
Information privately obtained e.g. personal conversation, interview, letter, lecture, email.
A live lecture is treated as personal communication, but you must reference a podcast of a lecture.
Doubts were cast on the statistical methods used (P Darnell 2009, pers. comm., 3 May).
In an email communication on 3 May 2008, Peter Darnell explained …
Personal communications are not listed in the list of references.